The term “reality” comes from the Latin word “res”, which means fact or thing. It also pertains to the actual existence. Ultimate reality, on the other hand, refers to those things that exist at its deepest. Your knowledge about reality may be largely incomplete, conscious or unconscious or highly systematic. It is structured and controls your life.
Your understanding of reality works as a filter and monitor incoming sensory signals. It also undergirds what you do with your life, what you believe in, what you think and feel and much more. Why Do You Need to Understand Reality?
An accurate understanding of reality is vital to human being. It helps you reconcile the diverse and conflicting claims of the secular world, modern science and religious faith. It also integrates multiple dimensions of your life, faith, thought and systematic framework that will offer you with everlasting strength.
If you understand reality, you can make better choices because you are familiar with what is real and not. You can also take away misconceptions and false beliefs which could lead to pain, disappointment and anxiety. Your knowledge about reality can also provide you with a great and deep satisfaction. It will also help you understand other people even more, thus making you more mature.
“Despite the differences in their interests, areas of study, and approaches, all psychologists have one thing in common: They rely on scientific methods. Research psychologists use scientific methods to create new knowledge about the causes of behavior, whereas psychologist- practitioners, such as clinical, counseling, industrial-organizational, and school psychologists, use existing research to enhance the everyday life of others. The science of psychology is important for both researchers and practitioners. In a sense all humans are scientists. We all have an interest in asking and answering questions about our world. We want to know why things happen, when and if they are likely to happen again, and how to reproduce or change them. Such knowledge enables us to predict our own behavior and that of others. We may even collect data (i.e., any information collected through formal observation or measurement) to aid us in this undertaking. It has been argued that people are “everyday scientists” who conduct research projects to answer questions about behavior (Nisbett & Ross, 1980).
“Levels of Explanation in Psychology The study of psychology spans many different topics at many different levels of explanation, which are the perspectives that are used to understand behavior. Lower levels of explanation are more closely tied to biological influences, such as genes, neurons, neurotransmitters, and hormones, whereas the middle levels of explanation refer to the abilities and characteristics of individual people, and the highest levels of explanation relate to social groups, organizations, and cultures (Cacioppo, Berntson, Sheridan, & McClintock, 2000). 
“The same topic can be studied within psychology at different levels of explanation, as shownin Figure 1.3 “Levels of Explanation”. For instance, the psychological disorder known as depression affects millions of people worldwide and is known to be caused by biological, social, and cultural factors. Studying and helping alleviate depression can be accomplished at low levels of explanation by investigating how chemicals in the brain influence the experience of depression. This approach has allowed psychologists to develop and prescribe drugs, such as Prozac, which may decrease depression in many individuals (Williams, Simpson, Simpson, & Nahas, 2009). ”
“At the middle levels of explanation, psychological therapy is directed at helping individuals cope with negative life experiences that may cause depression. And at the highest level, psychologists study differences in the prevalence of depression between men and women and across cultures. The occurrence of psychological disorders, including depression, is substantially higher for women than for men, and it is also higher in Western cultures, such as in the United States, Canada, and Europe, than in Eastern cultures, such as in India, China, and Japan (Chen, Wang, Poland, & Lin, 2009; Seedat et al., 2009).  These sex and cultural differences provide insight into the factors that cause depression. The study of depression in psychology helps remind us that no one level of explanation can explain everything. All levels of explanation, from biological to personal to cultural, are essential for a better understanding of human behavior.”
¶ So long as you live in a civilized or thickly populated community you will still need to understand your own nature and the natures of other people. No matter what you desire of life, other people’s aims, ambitions and activities constitute vital obstructions along your pathway. You will never get far without the co-operation, confidence and comradeship of other men and women.
Primitive Problems ¶ It was not always so. And its recentness in human history may account for some of our blindness to this great fact.
In primitive times people saw each other rarely and had much less to do with each other. The human element was then not the chief problem. Their environmental problems had to do with such things as the elements, violent storms, extremes of heat and cold, darkness, the ever-present menace of wild beasts whose flesh was their food, yet who would eat them first unless they were quick in brain and body.
Civilization’s Changes ¶ But all that is changed. Man has subjugated all other creatures and now walks the earth its supreme sovereign. He has discovered and invented and builded until now we live in skyscrapers, talk around the world
“world without wires and by pressing a button turn darkness into daylight.
Causes of Failure ¶ Yet with all our knowledge of the outside world ninety-nine lives out of every hundred are comparative failures.
¶ The reason is plain to every scientific investigator. We have failed to study ourselves in relation to the great environmental problem of today. The stage-setting has been changed but not the play. The game is the same old game—you must adjust and adapt yourself to your environment or it will destroy you.
Mastering His Own Environment ¶ The cities of today look different from the jungles of our ancestors and we imagine that because the brain of man overcame the old menaces no new ones have arisen to take their place. We no longer fear extermination from cold. We turn on the heat. We are not afraid of the vast oceans which held our primitive forebears in thrall, but pass swiftly, safely and luxuriously over their surfaces. And soon we shall be breakfasting in New York and dining the same evening in San Francisco!
Facing New Enemies ¶ But in building up this stupendous superstructure of modern civilization man has brought into being a society
“intricate and complex that he now faces the new environmental problem of human relationships.
The Modern Spider’s Web ¶ Today we depend for life’s necessities almost wholly upon the activities of others. The work of thousands of human hands and thousands of human brains lies back of every meal you eat, every journey you take, every book you read, every bed in which you sleep, every telephone conversation, every telegram you receive, every garment you wear.
And this fellowman of ours has multiplied, since that dim distant dawn, into almost two billion human beings, with at least one billion of them after the very things you want, and not a tenth enough to go around!
Adapt or Die ¶ Who will win? Nature answers for you. She has said with awful and inexorable finality that, whether you are a blade of grass on the Nevada desert or a man in the streets of London, you can win only as you adapt yourself to your environment. Today our environmental problem consists largely of the other fellow. Only those who learn to adapt themselves to their fellows can win great or lasting rewards.”
Already you can see your brain is not entirely under your control. If you see something specific this will cause certain neurons to fire based on your memories and understanding of that object. But, it also might cause surrounding neurons to fire, depending on the associations you have formed during this lifetime.
When certain neurons Fire, they cause particular emotions. Thats because neurons communicate across synapses. Small neurons between the end of one neuron ( the axon which is the tail) and the dendrites like arms of another.
At the end of each axon , is the synaptic knob. This is filled with chemicals called neurotransmitters, held inside neuro- vesicles. When the synapse fires, it causes these neurotransmitters to be released and that then alters the behaviors of the transmission and the surrounding cells.
Some neurotransmitters are excitatory, and make other neurons more likely to fire. Others are inhibitory and make them less likely to fire and become more suppressed.
Neurotransmitters are linked closely with hormones as well. Some hormones act like neurotransmitters while some neurotransmitters act like hormones. Essentially, hormones are longer lasting and generally produced in the body. While, neurotransmitters have shorter lasting effects and are produced in the brain. Even the hormones produced in the body though, are largely triggered by the pituitary glands. This is located in the brain.
An example is a lion , and your brain will sit up and take notice owing to the associations you begin forming with that image. Relevant neurons will fire, and because those neurons are coded with danger, they will release a number of neurotransmitters that will release dopamine and cortisol that will increase activity and say that something important is happening.
This increased activity , causes more of the brain to light up and areas around the hypothalamus will then begin to trigger activity to the pituitary glands. Producing adrenocorticotrophic hormones. The adrenal gland will also be triggered at this point, releasing the hormone epinephrine. This is essentially a form of adrenaline. This is then the set of changes that it causes in the sympathetic nervous system:
The triggers of psychological changes include:
The acceleration of the heart and lungs
Vasoconstriction- the thinning of the blood vessels
Dilation of the blood vessels leading to the muscles
Dilation of the pupils
Inhibition of erection
Sense of dread and anxiety
Thickening of the blood to encourage clotting after injury
Contraction of the muscles
Suppression of digestion and immune function
Essentially, the body now directs all blood, oxygen , nutrients and resources to the muscles and the brain. In order to aid in combat or other physical activities. There are many complex interactions of chemicals and hormones going on inside your body all of the time.
Owner and Founder At The Goddess Bibles A Memoir By Laura Zukerman