During those times you get knocked off the horse, it may take a few days for you to recover and gain some confidence back. The worst thing to do here is stop pushing. As soon as you’re ready, go back out and try again; and even though it may feel like you’ve been sent right back to the beginning, you’ll quickly realise all the progress you made is still there. Sure, you may want to dabble in a few of your baby steps again just to get going, but this time you’ll sail through them because you already did them so often that they no longer trigger overly bad responses. You may even skip your very first baby steps because they seem so redundant now, and by the end of the day or a couple of days you’ll be right back to where you were before and ready to push on again.”
“In truth, those bad days aren’t necessarily even that bad. When you’re focused on moving forward, a bad moment becomes just an annoying setback rather than a defining part of you. Let’s say you’ve been pushing for a few days and then you suddenly get hit by a big moment. It might wipe you out for a week and you just want to relax and recoup for a bit (my own moments always used to wipe me out for a week when I first started). That’s fine as long as you get back on the horse again once you’re ready. Sooner or later, these bad moments will set you back only a few days before you’re ready to go again; then it’ll be one day; then it’ll be a few hours; and eventually you may suffer a moment, need to sit down somewhere quiet to recover for a second, and then once it passes you’ll feel ready to go again straight away, mere minutes later.”
“Despite the differences in their interests, areas of study, and approaches, all psychologists have one thing in common: They rely on scientific methods. Research psychologists use scientific methods to create new knowledge about the causes of behavior, whereas psychologist- practitioners, such as clinical, counseling, industrial-organizational, and school psychologists, use existing research to enhance the everyday life of others. The science of psychology is important for both researchers and practitioners. In a sense all humans are scientists. We all have an interest in asking and answering questions about our world. We want to know why things happen, when and if they are likely to happen again, and how to reproduce or change them. Such knowledge enables us to predict our own behavior and that of others. We may even collect data (i.e., any information collected through formal observation or measurement) to aid us in this undertaking. It has been argued that people are “everyday scientists” who conduct research projects to answer questions about behavior (Nisbett & Ross, 1980).
“Levels of Explanation in Psychology The study of psychology spans many different topics at many different levels of explanation, which are the perspectives that are used to understand behavior. Lower levels of explanation are more closely tied to biological influences, such as genes, neurons, neurotransmitters, and hormones, whereas the middle levels of explanation refer to the abilities and characteristics of individual people, and the highest levels of explanation relate to social groups, organizations, and cultures (Cacioppo, Berntson, Sheridan, & McClintock, 2000). 
“The same topic can be studied within psychology at different levels of explanation, as shownin Figure 1.3 “Levels of Explanation”. For instance, the psychological disorder known as depression affects millions of people worldwide and is known to be caused by biological, social, and cultural factors. Studying and helping alleviate depression can be accomplished at low levels of explanation by investigating how chemicals in the brain influence the experience of depression. This approach has allowed psychologists to develop and prescribe drugs, such as Prozac, which may decrease depression in many individuals (Williams, Simpson, Simpson, & Nahas, 2009). ”
“At the middle levels of explanation, psychological therapy is directed at helping individuals cope with negative life experiences that may cause depression. And at the highest level, psychologists study differences in the prevalence of depression between men and women and across cultures. The occurrence of psychological disorders, including depression, is substantially higher for women than for men, and it is also higher in Western cultures, such as in the United States, Canada, and Europe, than in Eastern cultures, such as in India, China, and Japan (Chen, Wang, Poland, & Lin, 2009; Seedat et al., 2009).  These sex and cultural differences provide insight into the factors that cause depression. The study of depression in psychology helps remind us that no one level of explanation can explain everything. All levels of explanation, from biological to personal to cultural, are essential for a better understanding of human behavior.”
“The human Soul: It is the internal control mechanism consisting of a collection of rules and regulations which define the limits within which human behaviour should stay in order to conform to the requirements of interaction with other human beings and the environment in general. It can be considered as a sort of adjudicator of the suitability of activities proposed by the Mind. As stated earlier, the Soul has only an advisory role and its function is restricted to filtering proposals from the Mind by checking them against the framework of rules and regulations which have been accepted by the individual as representing the laws and references according to which the individual wants to adjust his or her behaviour. In other words, that which is called personality or character of an individual is the result of the public demonstration of the internal set of references comprising the individual’s Soul. That is why sometimes one may hear the saying” this person has no Soul” referring to a person who behaves outside of the acceptable norms of the society in which one belongs. The importance of the Soul in the expression of human behaviour is vital and critical. If for whatever reason the references used by the Soul are corrupted or false, or the link of communication between the Soul and the Mind is severed, then human behaviour will be either uncontrolled or will present serious deviation from the generally acceptable behaviour. In the discussion which follows in later chapters of this book, the organisation of references and the integrity of the Soul will be examined in greater detail. The last concept which needs to be defined is the one commonly known as “Consciousness”
¶ Now what is it that causes some to have ambition and others to lack it?
Your ambitions take the form determined by your predominating physiological system. For instance, in every great singer the Thoracic has been present either as the first or second element.
The effect of the physical upon our talents is no more marked anywhere than here. For it is his unusual lung power, his high chest, the sounding boards in his nose section and his superior vocal cords that make the real foundation of every singer’s fame. These physiological conditions are found in extreme degree only in persons of thoracic tendencies.
It was the great lung-power of Caruso that made him a great singer. It was his remarkable heart-power that brought him through an illness in February, 1921, when every newspaper in the world carried on its front page the positive statement that he could not live another day. That he lived for six months afterward was due chiefly to his remarkable heart.
The nature resulting from a large heart and large lungs is one distinctly different from all others—in short, the Thoracic nature.
“The Best Dressed ¶ The best dressed man and the best dressed woman in your town belong predominantly to this type. This is no accident. The Thoracics, being possessed of acute eye senses, are more sensitive to color and line than any other type. These are the foundations of “style” and artistic grooming.
Clothes Can Unmake the Man ¶ Being desirous of the approval of others and realizing that though clothes do not make the man they can unmake him, this type looks to his laurels on this point.
Because clothes determine the first impressions we make upon strangers and because that impression is difficult to change, clothes are of vast importance in this maze of human relationships.
The Thoracic is more sensitive to the attitude of others because their attitude is more vital to his self-expression. He senses from childhood the bearing that clothes have for or against him in the opinion of others and how they can aid him to express his personality.”
“The Glass of Fashion ¶ The Thoracic therefore often becomes “the glass of fashion and the mold of form.” His consciousness of himself is so keen that, even when alone, he prefers those things in dress which are at once fine, fancy and fashionable.
Some types are indifferent to clothes, some ignorant of clothes and some defiant in their clothes but the Thoracic always has a keen sense of fitness in the matter of apparel.
Distinction in Dress ¶ The distinctive dresser is one who essays the extremely fashionable, the “last moment” touch. He is always a step or two ahead of the times. His ties, handbags, handkerchiefs and stick pins are “up to the minute.” Such a man or woman invariably has a large thoracic development and is well repaid by the public for his pains.
Dress the Universal Language ¶ The public looks more eagerly than we suppose to changes in styles and fads. It gives, in spite of itself, instantaneous admiration of a sort to those who follow the dictates of fashion. This being one of the quickest roads to adulation, it is often utilized by this type.”
“The Newest in Hairdressing ¶ The latest thing in coiffures is always known by the Thoracic woman. And because she is, more often than any other type, a beautiful woman she can wear her hair in almost any style and find it becoming.
So when puffs were the thing this type of woman not only wore puffs but the most extreme and numerous puffs. When the “sticking-to-the-face” style was in vogue she bought much bandoline and essayed the sleekest and shiniest head of all. When the ear-bun raged she changed those same paper-like curls over night into veritable young sofa cushions.”
“Always on “Dress Parade” ¶ With intent to keep the spotlight on himself the Thoracic is always on dress parade. He is vividly aware of himself; he knows what kind of picture he is making. He is seldom “self-conscious,” in the sense of being timid. When he does happen to be timid he suffers, by reason of his greater desire for approval, more acutely than any other type.”
“Do you know that a great many of us do not actually breathe properly? It is one of the most important elements of life, otherwise, without the breath, we cannot live. Breathing may be an automatic function and a vital one, why then do we spend so much of our time shallow breathing? When we breathe in an unmindful way, we often fail to fill our lungs fully as we only using the upper part, but like anything, our lungs must be worked. Shallow breathing limits the range of motion of the diaphragm, and this can make you feel anxious and, as if you do not have sufficient breath.
We need oxygen for every single cell in the body. Inhalation and exhalation impact the heart and lungs but also, is essential for energy production. Your body’s tissues and organs are made up of cells, and they must receive the right nutrients and oxygen to function correctly.”
“How often do we pay attention to how we breathe? We don’t really, until we succumb to colds or chest infections. There’s little attention paid to our respiratory system. It’s only when you struggle to breathe that you realize just how important it is. If you consider that your nose, windpipe, lungs, circulatory system and the muscles all provide the vital role of transporting those all-important breaths that you take, each part of the body’s systems are inter-linked, but without breath, the body fails to exist.
Dr. Herbert Benson wrote about controlled breathing in his book The Relaxation Response which discussed the oxygen exchange i.e. oxygen being inhaled while carbon dioxide is released. He stated that by controlling breathing, it centers the parasympathetic nervous system which counteracts the body’s fight or flight response. So, this means that by focusing on the breath, it’s possible to de-stress and to manage any anxieties (and anxiousness equates to shallow, rapid breaths). But it also increased brain growth and lowered blood pressure and heart rate. Research endorses this argument and so, yes, focus, breathe correctly, and be healthy.”
“Our breathing is either: Thoracic or diaphragmatic Interrupted or continuous Irregular or rhythmical
Paying attention to how you breathe is important, but it’s also relevant to consider that your breathing is affected by your emotional or physical well-being. Think back to a time when you were angry, fearful or sad, these emotions would have affected your breathing. As you try to recall the memory, tune into the physicality’s of the moment. What was your breathing like? It’s important for you to determine if you have emotional triggers which will interrupt the natural process of breathing. Awareness is key because you can then re-train automatic responses, breathing correctly while improving your health.”
“Have a go at monitoring your breathing for a while and notice if you are guilty of shallow breathing all the time. It’s easy to correct so don’t worry if you do this. It’s very easy to fit some techniques into your daily life and, if you feel anxious at any point or fearful, know that when you focus on your breathing, you can reduce this feeling. The breath has such a calming effect. When I’ve been fraught with tension and have been worrying like mad about things, I found that by taking slow, deep breaths and focusing on the inhalation and exhalation, it really works. If you tune into the breath and focus, you can’t worry about anything else. There are so many symptoms associated with anxiety and these include:
Feeling faint Racing heartbeat Feeling lightheaded Chest pains”
“We’ve already discussed the connection between the mind and the body and so, it won’t surprise you to know that if you start feeling anxious, it’s possible to experience severe physical reactions. It’s true to say that some people are even hospitalized because they feel they might be having a heart attack. Many symptoms occur through shallow breathing. In fact, anxiety and shallow breathing go hand in hand. This is because the individual takes in only small breaths during any anxiety attack instead of breathing all the way to the bottom of their lungs. Shallow breathing may not be dangerous as such, but you can bet that it’s not good for you.
With shallow breathing, there’s often a need to take deeper breaths, simply because you are not getting in sufficient oxygen levels. Have you ever noticed that people start yawning to compensate on a subconscious level? It is the easy way to obtain sufficient oxygen and promote healing from within. Take 3 or 4 deep breaths and then go back to breathing normally, just do this more often that’s all.
“Feelings of anxiety promote the activation of our body’s fight or flight system. By its design, it is meant to keep you from safe from any danger. So, if you are faced with a dangerous situation, your heartbeat naturally speeds up, and you start to breathe faster, so to get more oxygen in your system ready for either fighting or fleeing from the situation. This, of course, makes sense.
But anyone who suffers from anxiety is probably not facing any actual danger but the body still reacts exactly as if they are. Of course, we all suffer from moments of anxiousness from time to time. Our errant thoughts can run astray and make us hypersensitive as to all the numerous things that could go wrong in life, and don’t we always think the worst? Left unchecked, this can develop into some sort of anxiety disorder, and you don’t want that.”
“When this happens, your body consistently starts to release adrenaline, behaving as if you are in a terrifying and life-threatening situation. The chances are you are not in a life-threatening situation, but your stress response activates anyway. You will breathe more rapidly but shallowly. In a panic attack, the individual can end up hyperventilating. Let’s dismiss one myth here when you breathe shallowly, it does not mean that you need to increase your oxygen levels. Actually, it is the opposite. It means that you are over-breathing, shallow rapid breaths and exhaling carbon dioxide far too quickly before your body can make more. Let’s consider the importance of breathing correctly. Inhale, and oxygen levels increase. But carbon dioxide actually takes time to develop and so, when the breath is shallow, you emit more CO2 than your body creates. It is this that will eventually lead to hyperventilation.
Now, as you hyperventilate, your body feels as if it is not getting sufficient levels of oxygen. Therefore, you start to take even more quick breaths in as you’ll feel panicky and of course, this makes it worse. Hyperventilation will lead to other side-effects including:
Surprisingly, shallow breathing is one of the most important things to control, and if you can understand how shallow breathing is connected to anxiety, it makes it so much easier to deal with it.
Slow breathing You may not want to slow your breathing down during an anxiety attack, but it is important to fight the urge to take deep, fast breaths but instead, just to slow down the breathing cycle. To do so, focus on your breathing and make each breath deliberate. Counting can help, and you should inhale for 5 seconds, hold the breath for 2 seconds and then, slowly breathe out for an extended period, for 6 to 7 seconds.”
“Five Biological Types
¶ Human Analysis differs from every other system of character analysis in that it classifies man, for the first time, into five types according to his biological evolution.
¶ It deals with man in the light of the most recent scientific discoveries. It estimates each individual according to his “human” qualities rather than his “character” or so-called “moral” qualities. In other words, it takes his measure as a human being and determines from his externals his chances for success in the world of today.
These Rules Work
¶ Every rule in this book is based on scientific data, has been proved to be accurate by investigations and surveys of all kinds of people in all parts of the world.
These rules do not work merely part of the time. They work all the time, under all conditions and apply to every individual of every race, every color, every country, every community and every family.
Through this latest human science you can learn to read people as easily as you read books—if you will take the little time and pains to learn the rules which compose your working alphabet.
“Do What We Want to Do
¶ It is easy to know what an individual will do under most circumstances because every human being does what he wants to do in the way he prefers to do it most of the time. If you doubt it try this test: bring to mind any intimate friends, or even that husband or wife, and note how few changes they have made in their way of doing things in twenty years!
¶ Every human being is born with preferences and predilections which manifest themselves from earliest childhood to death. These inborn tendencies are never obliterated and seldom controlled to any great extent, and then only by individuals who have learned the power of the mind over the body. Inasmuch as this knowledge is possessed by only a few, most of the people of the earth are blindly following the dictates of their inborn leanings.
Follow Our Bents
¶ In other words, more than ninety-nine per cent of all the people you know are following their natural bents in reacting to all their experiences—from the most trivial incidents to the most far-reaching emergencies.”
“Took It” from Grandmother
¶ The individual is seldom conscious of these habitual acts of his, much less of where he got them. The nearest he comes is to say he “got it from his father” or “she takes it from grandmother.” But where did grandmother get it?
Man No Mystery
¶ Science has taken the trouble to investigate and today we know not only where grandmother got it but what she did with it. She got it along with her size, shape and structure—in other words, from her type—and she did just what you and everybody else does with his type-characteristics. She acted in accordance with her type just as a canary sings like a canary instead of talking like a parrot, and just as a rose gives off rose perfume instead of violet.
This law holds throughout every species and explains man—who likes to think himself a deep mystery—as it explains every other creature.
The Hold of Habit
¶ Look around you in shop, office, field or home and you will find that the quick, alert, impulsive man is acting quickly, alertly and impulsively most of the time. Nothing less than a calamity slows him
“down and then only temporarily; while the slow, patient, mild and passive individual is acting slowly, patiently, mildly and passively in spite of all goads. Some overwhelming passion or crisis may speed him up momentarily but as soon as it fades he reverts to his old slow habits.
Significance of Fat, Bone and Muscle
¶ Human Analysis is the new science which shows you how to recognize the slow man, the quick man, the stubborn man, the yielding man, the leader, the learner, and all other basic kinds of men on sight from the shape, size and structure of their bodies.
Certain bodily shapes indicate predispositions to fatness, leanness, boniness, muscularity and nervousness, and this predisposition is so much a part of the warp and woof of the individual that he can not disguise it. The urge given him by this inborn mechanism is so strong as to be practically irresistible. Every experience of his life calls forth some kind of reaction and invariably the reaction will be similar, in every vital respect, to the reactions of other people who have bodies of the same general size, shape and structure as his own.”
“Reading People ¶ Learning to read men and women is a more delightful process than learning to read books, for every person you see is a true story, more romantic and absorbing than any ever bound in covers.
Learning to read people is also a simpler process than learning to read books because there are fewer letters in the human alphabet. Though man seems to the untrained eye a mystifying mass of “funny little marks,” he is not now difficult to analyze.
Only a Few Feelings ¶ This is because there are after all but a few kinds of human feelings. Some form of hunger, love, hate, fear, hope or ambition gives rise to every human emotion and every human thought.”
“Thoughts Bring Actions ¶ Now our actions follow our thoughts. Every thought, however transitory, causes muscular action, which leaves its trace in that part of the physical organism which is most closely allied to it.
Physiology and Psychology Interwoven ¶ Look into the mirror the next time you are angry, happy, surprised, tired or sorrowful and note the changes wrought by your emotions in your facial muscles.
Constant repetition of the same kinds of thoughts or emotions finally makes permanent changes in that part of the body which is physiologically related to these mental processes.
The Evolution of the Jaw ¶ The jaw is a good illustration of this alliance between the mind and the body. Its muscles and bones are so closely allied to the pugnacity instinct center in the brain that the slightest thought of combat causes the jaw muscles to stiffen. Let the thought of any actual physical encounter go through your mind and your jaw bone will automatically move upward and outward.
After a lifetime of combat, whether by fists or words, the jaw sets permanently a little more upward and outward—a little more like that of the bulldog. It keeps to this combative mold, “because,” says Mother Nature, the great efficiency expert, “if you are going to call on me constantly to stiffen that jaw I’ll fix it so it will stay that way and save myself the trouble.”
“Inheritance of Acquired Traits ¶ Thus the more combative jaw, having become permanent in the man’s organism, can be passed on to his children.
¶ Right here comes a most interesting law and one that has made possible the science of Human Analysis:
Law of Size ¶ The larger any part or organ the better its equipment for carrying out the work of that organ and the more does it tend to express itself. Nature IS an efficiency expert and doesn’t give you an oversupply of anything without demanding that you use it.
Jaws Becoming Smaller ¶ Our ancestors developed massive jaws as a result of constant combat. As fast as civilization decreased the necessity for combat Nature decreased the size of the average human jaw.
Meaning of the Big Jaw ¶ But wherever you see a large protruding jaw you see an individual “armed and engined,” for some kind of fighting. The large jaw always goes with a combative nature, whether it is found on a man or a woman, a child, a pugilist or a minister.”
“Exhibit a—The Irishman ¶ The large jaw, therefore, is seen to be both a result and a cause of certain things. As the inheritance of a fighting ancestor it is the result of millions of years of fighting in prehistoric times, and, like any other over-developed part or organ, it has an intense urge to express itself. This inherent urge is what makes the owner of that jaw “fight at the drop of the hat,” and often have “a chip on his shoulder.”
Natural Selection ¶ Thus, because every external characteristic is the result of natural laws, and chiefly of natural selection, the vital traits of any creature can be read from his externals. Every student of biology, anatomy, anthropology, ethnology or psychology is familiar with these facts.
Built to Fit ¶ Man’s organism has developed, altered, improved and evolved “down through the slow revolving years” with one instinctive aim—successful reaction to its environment. Every part has been laboriously constructed to that sole end. Because of this its functions are marked as clearly upon it as those of a grain elevator, a steamship or a piano.
“Survival of the Fittest ¶ Nature has no accidents, she wastes no material and everything has a purpose. If you put up a good fight to live she will usually come to your rescue and give you enough of whatever is needed to tide you over. If you don’t, she says you are not fit to people the earth and lets you go without a pang. Thus she weeds out all but the strong—and evolution marches on.
Causes of Racial Characteristics ¶ This inherent potentiality for altering the organism to meet the demands of the environment is especially noticeable in races and is the reason for most racial differences.
Differences in environment—climate, altitude and topography necessitated most of these physical differentiations which today enable us to know at a glance whether a man belongs to the white race, the yellow race, or the black race. The results of these differentiations and modifications will be told in the various chapters of this book.”