Psychology As A Science

“Despite the differences in their interests, areas of study, and approaches, all psychologists have one thing in common: They rely on scientific methods. Research psychologists use scientific methods to create new knowledge about the causes of behavior, whereas psychologist- practitioners, such as clinical, counseling, industrial-organizational, and school psychologists, use existing research to enhance the everyday life of others. The science of psychology is important for both researchers and practitioners.
In a sense all humans are scientists. We all have an interest in asking and answering questions about our world. We want to know why things happen, when and if they are likely to happen again, and how to reproduce or change them. Such knowledge enables us to predict our own behavior and that of others. We may even collect data (i.e., any information collected through formal observation or measurement) to aid us in this undertaking. It has been argued that people are “everyday scientists” who conduct research projects to answer questions about behavior (Nisbett & Ross, 1980).

“Levels of Explanation in Psychology
The study of psychology spans many different topics at many different levels of explanation, which are the perspectives that are used to understand behavior. Lower levels of explanation are more closely tied to biological influences, such as genes, neurons, neurotransmitters, and hormones, whereas the middle levels of explanation refer to the abilities and characteristics of individual people, and the highest levels of explanation relate to social groups, organizations, and cultures (Cacioppo, Berntson, Sheridan, & McClintock, 2000). [7]

“The same topic can be studied within psychology at different levels of explanation, as shownin Figure 1.3 “Levels of Explanation”. For instance, the psychological disorder known as depression affects millions of people worldwide and is known to be caused by biological, social, and cultural factors. Studying and helping alleviate depression can be accomplished at low levels of explanation by investigating how chemicals in the brain influence the experience of depression. This approach has allowed psychologists to develop and prescribe drugs, such as Prozac, which may decrease depression in many individuals (Williams, Simpson, Simpson, & Nahas, 2009). ”

“At the middle levels of explanation, psychological therapy is directed at helping individuals cope with negative life experiences that may cause depression. And at the highest level, psychologists study differences in the prevalence of depression between men and women and across cultures. The occurrence of psychological disorders, including depression, is substantially higher for women than for men, and it is also higher in Western cultures, such as in the United States, Canada, and Europe, than in Eastern cultures, such as in India, China, and Japan (Chen, Wang, Poland, & Lin, 2009; Seedat et al., 2009). [9] These sex and cultural differences provide insight into the factors that cause depression. The study of depression in psychology helps remind us that no one level of explanation can explain everything. All levels of explanation, from biological to personal to cultural, are essential for a better understanding of human behavior.”

The Goddess Bibles

A Memoir By Laura Zukerman

Metaphysics

Metaphysics is a comprehensive scope of philosophy, it is not a science. It has been used to explain a vast number of subjects. Including, God, Religion, Life and Death, Positive Thinking, Psychology and Laws of The Universe.

Metaphysics is considered one of the oldest branches of philosophy. It interprets the vital relationship that takes place between his or her manner of interpreting the universe and the world alike.

The word Metaphysics comes from the Greek terms “meta” and “physika.” Once it is combined it forms to mean beyond nature. Most people believe it was Aristotle who formed the word metaphysics.

Although, it was Andronicus of Rhodes, who claimed to have used the word; describing the body of work Aristotle formed after concentrating on physics. Through this “meta” referred to the immense philosophers work which started after physics.

Metaphysics is a very crucial area. Believe it or not, every individual possesses a metaphysical system. Even if they have never studied the disciplines. The nature of survival is one of the most fundamental concepts in metaphysics. Another area of metaphysics is the law of governing the universe and the world around them.

Among the laws , the law of causality is the most significant. It defines each action as a result of another earlier action. This law defines metaphysics. It also leads to two distinct perceptions of the world. The predictable causation can either lead to primary cause or endless causation. The people who believe in primary cause, trust in god. The people who believe in endless causation, possess an anarchic or chaotic view of our worlds existence.

There are three levels of metaphysics, they include ontology, theology and universal science. Ontology is the main branch of philosophy. It deals with the study of the nature of reality. Theology, on the other hand is the study of god. It answers the fact of god really existing or not. Universal science is the hardest type of level, it involves the search for the principles. The fundamental laws, universal logic also the origin of where this all began.

The application of ones metaphysical reality helps the acceleration, of ones evolution. Through understanding this field, you can easily answer the different questions that come into your mind. You will be able to Distinguish reality from fantasy.

The concept of metaphysics is very comprehensive. Metaphysics has an inspirational value. It covers both the spiritual and the physical aspects of man. It begins where conventional psychology leaves off and goes into dogmatic religion.

Lastly, if your wondering what a metaphysician is; it is someone who seeks to understand reality. These individuals desire to know why things exist. With these professionals, people are able to understand the real concept of metaphysics. The real concept is to figure out the truth behind every action.

❤️

Laura Zukerman

Owner and Founder At The Goddess Bibles A Memoir By Laura Zukerman

Becoming Your Inner Goddess

Goddess on Fire 🔥

Understanding Your Brain and Some Basic Psychology


Who are you? What makes you , you? The answer is your brain to the most extremes. Your brain in turn is made up of billions of neurons. These are small cells that have tendril like extensions reaching out and into the different corners of your skull.

These neurons can be created , destroyed or changed due to any experiences that we encounter. They represent all kinds of things such as memories, sight, smells, thoughts and the commandments to move our bodies.

When an electrical impulse moves through a neuron, this means it is firing and thus we experience whatever correlates with that firing. If you open up someone’s skull and use an electrode to stimulate individual neurons, then one might make someone see a point of red light, one might make someone move their arm, and another might make them remember their mother.

These neurons are all interconnected and the more often two neurons Fire at once, the more connected they become. Thus, when one neuron fires, it is likely that others around it will fire depending upon the strength of the firing. This is called the action potential.

Some clusters of neurons from the major brain structures, like the occipital lobe, motor cortex or the hippocampus; are responsible for particular behaviors. Other neurons reach from one end of the brain all the way to the other end of the brain.



Already you can see your brain is not entirely under your control. If you see something specific this will cause certain neurons to fire based on your memories and understanding of that object. But, it also might cause surrounding neurons to fire, depending on the associations you have formed during this lifetime.

When certain neurons Fire, they cause particular emotions. Thats because neurons communicate across synapses. Small neurons between the end of one neuron ( the axon which is the tail) and the dendrites like arms of another.

At the end of each axon , is the synaptic knob. This is filled with chemicals called neurotransmitters, held inside neuro- vesicles. When the synapse fires, it causes these neurotransmitters to be released and that then alters the behaviors of the transmission and the surrounding cells.

Some neurotransmitters are excitatory, and make other neurons more likely to fire. Others are inhibitory and make them less likely to fire and become more suppressed.

Neurotransmitters are linked closely with hormones as well. Some hormones act like neurotransmitters while some neurotransmitters act like hormones. Essentially, hormones are longer lasting and generally produced in the body. While, neurotransmitters have shorter lasting effects and are produced in the brain. Even the hormones produced in the body though, are largely triggered by the pituitary glands. This is located in the brain.

An example is a lion , and your brain will sit up and take notice owing to the associations you begin forming with that image. Relevant neurons will fire, and because those neurons are coded with danger, they will release a number of neurotransmitters that will release dopamine and cortisol that will increase activity and say that something important is happening.

This increased activity , causes more of the brain to light up and areas around the hypothalamus will then begin to trigger activity to the pituitary glands. Producing adrenocorticotrophic hormones. The adrenal gland will also be triggered at this point, releasing the hormone epinephrine. This is essentially a form of adrenaline. This is then the set of changes that it causes in the sympathetic nervous system:

The triggers of psychological changes include:

The acceleration of the heart and lungs

Vasoconstriction- the thinning of the blood vessels

Dilation of the blood vessels leading to the muscles

Dilation of the pupils

Inhibition of erection

Sense of dread and anxiety

Tunnel vision

Pain reduction

Thickening of the blood to encourage clotting after injury

Shaking

Contraction of the muscles

Suppression of digestion and immune function

Essentially, the body now directs all blood, oxygen , nutrients and resources to the muscles and the brain. In order to aid in combat or other physical activities. There are many complex interactions of chemicals and hormones going on inside your body all of the time.

❤️

Laura Zukerman

Owner and Founder At The Goddess Bibles A Memoir By Laura Zukerman

Becoming Your Inner Goddess

Goddess on Fire 🔥

Psychology The Study of The Mind

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Psychology and Reasoning of People in Groups!

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