Psychology As A Science

“Despite the differences in their interests, areas of study, and approaches, all psychologists have one thing in common: They rely on scientific methods. Research psychologists use scientific methods to create new knowledge about the causes of behavior, whereas psychologist- practitioners, such as clinical, counseling, industrial-organizational, and school psychologists, use existing research to enhance the everyday life of others. The science of psychology is important for both researchers and practitioners.
In a sense all humans are scientists. We all have an interest in asking and answering questions about our world. We want to know why things happen, when and if they are likely to happen again, and how to reproduce or change them. Such knowledge enables us to predict our own behavior and that of others. We may even collect data (i.e., any information collected through formal observation or measurement) to aid us in this undertaking. It has been argued that people are “everyday scientists” who conduct research projects to answer questions about behavior (Nisbett & Ross, 1980).

“Levels of Explanation in Psychology
The study of psychology spans many different topics at many different levels of explanation, which are the perspectives that are used to understand behavior. Lower levels of explanation are more closely tied to biological influences, such as genes, neurons, neurotransmitters, and hormones, whereas the middle levels of explanation refer to the abilities and characteristics of individual people, and the highest levels of explanation relate to social groups, organizations, and cultures (Cacioppo, Berntson, Sheridan, & McClintock, 2000). [7]

“The same topic can be studied within psychology at different levels of explanation, as shownin Figure 1.3 “Levels of Explanation”. For instance, the psychological disorder known as depression affects millions of people worldwide and is known to be caused by biological, social, and cultural factors. Studying and helping alleviate depression can be accomplished at low levels of explanation by investigating how chemicals in the brain influence the experience of depression. This approach has allowed psychologists to develop and prescribe drugs, such as Prozac, which may decrease depression in many individuals (Williams, Simpson, Simpson, & Nahas, 2009). ”

“At the middle levels of explanation, psychological therapy is directed at helping individuals cope with negative life experiences that may cause depression. And at the highest level, psychologists study differences in the prevalence of depression between men and women and across cultures. The occurrence of psychological disorders, including depression, is substantially higher for women than for men, and it is also higher in Western cultures, such as in the United States, Canada, and Europe, than in Eastern cultures, such as in India, China, and Japan (Chen, Wang, Poland, & Lin, 2009; Seedat et al., 2009). [9] These sex and cultural differences provide insight into the factors that cause depression. The study of depression in psychology helps remind us that no one level of explanation can explain everything. All levels of explanation, from biological to personal to cultural, are essential for a better understanding of human behavior.”

The Goddess Bibles

A Memoir By Laura Zukerman

Breathing is a necessity in life

“Do you know that a great many of us do not actually breathe properly? It is one of the most important elements of life, otherwise, without the breath, we cannot live.
Breathing may be an automatic function and a vital one, why then do we spend so much of our time shallow breathing? When we breathe in an unmindful way, we often fail to fill our lungs fully as we only using the upper part, but like anything, our lungs must be worked. Shallow breathing limits the range of motion of the diaphragm, and this can make you feel anxious and, as if you do not have sufficient breath.


We need oxygen for every single cell in the body. Inhalation and exhalation impact the heart and lungs but also, is essential for energy production. Your body’s tissues and organs are made up of cells, and they must receive the right nutrients and oxygen to function correctly.”

“How often do we pay attention to how we breathe? We don’t really, until we succumb to colds or chest infections. There’s little attention paid to our respiratory system. It’s only when you struggle to breathe that you realize just how important it is. If you consider that your nose, windpipe, lungs, circulatory system and the muscles all provide the vital role of transporting those all-important breaths that you take, each part of the body’s systems are inter-linked, but without breath, the body fails to exist.


Dr. Herbert Benson wrote about controlled breathing in his book The Relaxation Response which discussed the oxygen exchange i.e. oxygen being inhaled while carbon dioxide is released. He stated that by controlling breathing, it centers the parasympathetic nervous system which counteracts the body’s fight or flight response. So, this means that by focusing on the breath, it’s possible to de-stress and to manage any anxieties (and anxiousness equates to shallow, rapid breaths). But it also increased brain growth and lowered blood pressure and heart rate. Research endorses this argument and so, yes, focus, breathe correctly, and be healthy.”

“Our breathing is either:
Thoracic or diaphragmatic
Interrupted or continuous
Irregular or rhythmical


Paying attention to how you breathe is important, but it’s also relevant to consider that your breathing is affected by your emotional or physical well-being. Think back to a time when you were angry, fearful or sad, these emotions would have affected your breathing. As you try to recall the memory, tune into the physicality’s of the moment. What was your breathing like? It’s important for you to determine if you have emotional triggers which will interrupt the natural process of breathing. Awareness is key because you can then re-train automatic responses, breathing correctly while improving your health.”

“Have a go at monitoring your breathing for a while and notice if you are guilty of shallow breathing all the time. It’s easy to correct so don’t worry if you do this. It’s very easy to fit some techniques into your daily life and, if you feel anxious at any point or fearful, know that when you focus on your breathing, you can reduce this feeling. The breath has such a calming effect. When I’ve been fraught with tension and have been worrying like mad about things, I found that by taking slow, deep breaths and focusing on the inhalation and exhalation, it really works. If you tune into the breath and focus, you can’t worry about anything else.
There are so many symptoms associated with anxiety and these include:


Feeling faint
Racing heartbeat
Feeling lightheaded
Chest pains”

“We’ve already discussed the connection between the mind and the body and so, it won’t surprise you to know that if you start feeling anxious, it’s possible to experience severe physical reactions. It’s true to say that some people are even hospitalized because they feel they might be having a heart attack. Many symptoms occur through shallow breathing. In fact, anxiety and shallow breathing go hand in hand. This is because the individual takes in only small breaths during any anxiety attack instead of breathing all the way to the bottom of their lungs. Shallow breathing may not be dangerous as such, but you can bet that it’s not good for you.


With shallow breathing, there’s often a need to take deeper breaths, simply because you are not getting in sufficient oxygen levels.
Have you ever noticed that people start yawning to compensate on a subconscious level? It is the easy way to obtain sufficient oxygen and promote healing from within. Take 3 or 4 deep breaths and then go back to breathing normally, just do this more often that’s all.

“Feelings of anxiety promote the activation of our body’s fight or flight system. By its design, it is meant to keep you from safe from any danger. So, if you are faced with a dangerous situation, your heartbeat naturally speeds up, and you start to breathe faster, so to get more oxygen in your system ready for either fighting or fleeing from the situation. This, of course, makes sense.

But anyone who suffers from anxiety is probably not facing any actual danger but the body still reacts exactly as if they are.
Of course, we all suffer from moments of anxiousness from time to time. Our errant thoughts can run astray and make us hypersensitive as to all the numerous things that could go wrong in life, and don’t we always think the worst? Left unchecked, this can develop into some sort of anxiety disorder, and you don’t want that.”

“When this happens, your body consistently starts to release adrenaline, behaving as if you are in a terrifying and life-threatening situation. The chances are you are not in a life-threatening situation, but your stress response activates anyway. You will breathe more rapidly but shallowly. In a panic attack, the individual can end up hyperventilating. Let’s dismiss one myth here when you breathe shallowly, it does not mean that you need to increase your oxygen levels. Actually, it is the opposite. It means that you are over-breathing, shallow rapid breaths and exhaling carbon dioxide far too quickly before your body can make more.
Let’s consider the importance of breathing correctly. Inhale, and oxygen levels increase. But carbon dioxide actually takes time to develop and so, when the breath is shallow, you emit more CO2 than your body creates. It is this that will eventually lead to hyperventilation.

Now, as you hyperventilate, your body feels as if it is not getting sufficient levels of oxygen. Therefore, you start to take even more quick breaths in as you’ll feel panicky and of course, this makes it worse.
Hyperventilation will lead to other side-effects including:


Feeling weak
Tingling sensation Feeling feint
Increased heartbeat
Chest pains
Dizziness
Aches and pains
Reduced mental clarity.


Surprisingly, shallow breathing is one of the most important things to control, and if you can understand how shallow breathing is connected to anxiety, it makes it so much easier to deal with it.


Slow breathing
You may not want to slow your breathing down during an anxiety attack, but it is important to fight the urge to take deep, fast breaths but instead, just to slow down the breathing cycle. To do so, focus on your breathing and make each breath deliberate. Counting can help, and you should inhale for 5 seconds, hold the breath for 2 seconds and then, slowly breathe out for an extended period, for 6 to 7 seconds.”

The Goddess Bibles

A Memoir By Laura Zukerman

Anxiety and Stress

“Some people seem to find it easier to cope in life, have you ever wondered why? I found myself doing just this. My findings were surprising. Research led by Harvard University, the University of Oregon and the University of Texas revealed that very effective leaders all share a similar mindset but, not just this, they also share similar hormone levels. The more powerful the leader, the higher the levels of testosterone.


This simply means that those with higher levels of testosterone are naturally primed to be more assertive, relaxed and confident. They will be less reactive to stressors and be able to handle the bombardment of pressure quite well. In addition, there’s one physical cue which impacts both hormones and that’s body language. So, if you can improve your body language, you will naturally increase testosterone while decreasing cortisone levels and this means, less stress but more confidence.


This leads me directly into power body poses.
Power poses are intriguing. Amy Cuddy is a researcher based at Harvard University and she and her team have identified that different body positions equate to high power or low power poses. High power poses tend to be open and relaxed while low power poses will be closed off and guarded.

“They studied the impact of these poses in a research study on 42 students. Saliva was taken from each of them and cortisone levels and testosterone levels were then measured. Afterwards, each person was asked to sit in either high power or low power poses for approximately 2 minutes. After which, an additional sample saliva was taken and cortisone and testosterone levels were measured yet again.

The results were stunning. High power poses serve to increase testosterone by approximately 20% and they found that cortisone levels decreased by 25%. When you consider the ability to exude confidence and cope with daily pressures, this is significant.
Try this well-known and versatile power pose so you can see what I mean. Its nickname is ‘The Wonder Woman’ pose and, you simply stand tall, with chest out and hands on the hips. It’s certainly a power stance and irrespective of its name, it is just as important to men as it is to women. Try it now and then see how you feel afterwards.”

“I mentioned before that our body language speaks volumes about us. If you are a little worried as to those secretive body language communications, try to build in some body language checks each day and insert a higher power pose into your routine each morning for approximately 2 or 3 minutes.
When you do so, close your eyes, breathing in deeply for a count of 3, you can hold the breath for just a second and then, breathe out fully for a count of 5. If this is difficult, you can reduce the count – say for 2, 1 and 4 counts. You can also combine breathing exercises with power poses for maximum benefits. I use power poses with meditation at the start of my day and I feel great afterwards.

As you are only investing a couple of minutes, you will have time for it.
Body language is important but it’s not everything. One thing for sure is that confidence affects both your mind and body. Your personality and emotional state of mind will no doubt affect your levels of confidence but improving your body language by taking up one of the power poses, will certainly increase physical presence and make you feel so much better.
You can use these power poses quickly and efficiently in every situation.

Think about a difficult presentation in front of your boss or colleagues. Imagine you are waiting to be called in and you start to feel nervous and your hands are sweating. Find a quiet space and take a moment to adjust your posture. Put your hands on your hips, keep your chin up, have your chest out and visualize the pose. If you can just do this for a couple of minutes before you attend your meeting or your interview, your testosterone levels will increase as will your confidence. You will also naturally and quickly lower your stress levels.”

The Goddess Bibles

A Memoir By Laura Zukerman

What is Taxonomy & Dichotomy?

What are the 8 level of taxonomy?

An example of taxonomy is the way living beings are divided up into Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species. An example of taxonomy is the Dewey Decimal system – the way libraries classify non-fiction books by division and subdivisions

There are four taxonomic fundamental components which simplify the process of identification up to species level. These components are identification, characterization, classification and naming.

Carolus Linnaeus The father of taxonomy:

Carl Linnaeus, also known as Carl von Linné or Carolus Linnaeus, is often called the Father of Taxonomy. His system for naming, ranking, and classifying organisms is still in wide use today (with many changes). In the 1700s, he developed a way to name and organize species that we still use today. His two most important contributions to taxonomy were: A hierarchical classification system

What is a dichotomous key?

A dichotomous key is a tool that allows the user to determine the identity of items in the natural world, such as trees, wildflowers, mammals, reptiles, rocks, and fish. Keys consist of a series of choices that lead the user to the correct name of a given item. “Dichotomous” means “divided into two parts”.

The Goddess Bibles A Memoir By Laura Zukerman

Inner Peace & Tranquility / The Chakras and What They Do. From Top To Bottom

 

As you probably know energy affects you more than you realize. Science has proven that everything in our universe is made of the same energy. But, How does it apply to me? Remember a time when you spoke to someone or encountered something or someone who was angry , stressed, anxious, or in a bad mood? what happened after? Chances are you began to feel it, maybe in your stomach, your heart or your head. It affected you somehow, it does not begin to stop there.

Sometimes you will begin to carry that energy throughout your day, and it ends up affecting everything you do. It will also begin to affect everyone you encounter. You bring it from one direction to the next, you might bring it home. It has a ripple effect and that it just one tiny example. Know that even a complete stranger can affect your life through just energy alone.

There is also a lucky and unlucky phenomenon where if you have ever had a lucky day, one where everything went right. One after another? Almost as if the stars were lined up and conspiring in your favor?

Have you ever had a bad day, where everything just went wrong and it just kept on piling up. All you wanted was to curl into a ball and hide from the world? It is not a coincidence that when these things begin to happen they are controlled by your energy circuits.

Your energy is more power than your thoughts and your emotions. The invisible thing that controls your mood is your energy. It controls everything. It is the one thing that most people do not focus on because they do not see it with their naked eye! Have you ever heard the saying (“Out of Sight, Out of Mind”)

When your energy and person vibration is high, most obstacles and challenges do not even appear , you begin to skip them. The ones that do appear, you are just able to handle them- maybe magically?

When your energy and personal vibration is low- then the pandoras box of negativity, fear, and unwanted scenarios come flooding into your life- and even the “smallest things” tend to bother you!

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Going through dark times is terrible, you need to know how to get rid of these limiting beliefs, emotions and actions that are dragging you down.  Within minutes you can become aware of mastering your energy fields. Your logical mind begins catching up with your negative thinking and thats what makes you aware of this and you feel much better afterward, However; you must be aware!!

When Everything flows, When chosen the right vibration and energy for myself for others, miracles being to happen several times a day! If you are dealing with this and you ask for signs, you will end up receiving the higher frequencies of self love and abundance. Sometimes when your in the right frequencies , what you desire the most finds its way to you effortlessly.

You have the physical body and you also have the energetic body and its a complex system. The energetic system is vast and extremely complex. Here are some of the basic  ones to remember for now. In our physical body we have physical organs. You have energetic organs which are known as chakras. Chakras affect you more than you know. They affect your emotions, mood, experiences, health and well being finances and relationships.

For physical bodies there are energetic toxins. Energetic toxins can come through internally or externally. We have physical skin, we also have energetic skin. Energetic skin would be the aura. Aura, depending on how sensitive you are, absorbs what it comes in contact with , just like our skin would.

We then have physical senses= 8 spiritual & energetic senses. This is like our five senses. ( sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch.) Our energetic senses help us make sense and decipher the invisible energy. Most of the biggest pain and struggle people experience is because they do not know how to take care of their energetic bodies.

Every painful and traumatic experience you have ever had since you were a child had a tremendous impact on you and its still affecting you and holding you back. It is a compounding affect. When you have energy that is stuck, your problems will keep reoccurring over and over again , and you wont be able to fully move forward regardless of how hard you are trying. If you have energy blocks in your system, there is an energetic blue print, to keep you from moving forward.

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Heres how it occurs, the painful experience will happen and the energy from that initially gets stored in your energetic body. Then the initial energy that was stored in your body from these painful experiences eventually turn into energetic patterns.

These energetic patterns keep you stuck, and cause you to keep re-experiencing the same problem over and over and over again. Unless you are able to remove the deeply – rooted energetic blocks that are stuck in your body. ( Sometimes on a deep cellular level ), You will be stuck where you are, and you wont be able to fully move forward.

Energy can get trapped, in auric fields, from day to day living, in chakras- from your own pain or from trauma others inflict upon you. In the actual organs, from internal to external sources. In karmic and energetic timelines. In DNA and Cellular levels – passed on from ancestors and generational trauma.

Lets use chakras as an example, its one of the hidden energetic systems that flows within our bodies and affects everything in our lives from our careers to relationships to inner peace.

Your crown chakra – has to do with spirituality, intuition, and purpose of work. So, if you are having issues in that area, theres most likely energetic toxins and blocks in your crown chakra.

Your third eye chakra- has to do with absorbing peoples energy, and tuning. Being able to tune into the energetic world. If you are sensitive to other peoples energies, theres most likely energetic toxins and blocks in your third eye chakra.

Your throat chakra has to do with speaking, your truth and confidence, and communication. So, if you are having communication issues, theres most likely energetic toxins and blocks in your throat chakra.

Your heart chakra- has to do with love and self love. If you have a hard time loving yourself, or you keep attracting toxic people into your life, theres most likely energetic toxins and blocks in your heart chakra.

Your solar plexus chakra- also called the power center, has to do with wisdom, self esteem, self worth and personal power. If you have a hard time standing up for yourself, or standing in your power , theres most likely energetic toxins and blocks in your solar plexus chakra.

Your root chakra- has to do with career, being grounded, and material abundance. If you have issues with money, abundance or staying grounded, theres most likely energetic toxins and blocks in your root chakra.

Laura Zukerman

Owner and Founder At The Goddess Bibles A Memoir By Laura Zukerman

Becoming Your Inner Goddess

Goddess On Fire