Dissociative Disorders

Dissociative disorders are characterized by an involuntary escape from reality characterized by a disconnection between thoughts, identity, consciousness and memory. People from all age groups and racial, ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds can experience a dissociative disorder.

Its estimated that 2% of people experience dissociative disorders, with women being more likely than men to be diagnosed. Almost half of adults in the United States experience at least one depersonalization/derealization episode in their lives, with only 2% meeting the full criteria for chronic episodes.

The symptoms of a dissociative disorder usually first develop as a response to a traumatic event, such as abuse or military combat, to keep those memories under control. Stressful situations can worsen symptoms and cause problems with functioning in everyday activities. However, the symptoms a person experiences will depend on the type of dissociative disorder that a person has.

Treatment for dissociative disorders often involves psychotherapy and medication. Though finding an effective treatment plan can be difficult, many people are able to live healthy and productive lives.

Is someone you care about dealing with a dissociative disorder? Or are you? We can help. Click to email our Helpline for more support.

Symptoms and signs of dissociative disorders include:

  • Significant memory loss of specific times, people and events
  • Out-of-body experiences, such as feeling as though you are watching a movie of yourself
  • Mental health problems such as depression, anxiety and thoughts of suicide
  • A sense of detachment from your emotions, or emotional numbness
  • A lack of a sense of self-identity

The symptoms of dissociative disorders depend on the type of disorder that has been diagnosed. There are three types of dissociative disorders defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM):

  • Dissociative Amnesia. The main symptom is difficulty remembering important information about one’s self. Dissociative amnesia may surround a particular event, such as combat or abuse, or more rarely, information about identity and life history. The onset for an amnesic episode is usually sudden, and an episode can last minutes, hours, days, or, rarely, months or years. There is no average for age onset or percentage, and a person may experience multiple episodes throughout her life.
  • Depersonalization disorder. This disorder involves ongoing feelings of detachment from actions, feelings, thoughts and sensations as if they are watching a movie (depersonalization). Sometimes other people and things may feel like people and things in the world around them are unreal (derealization). A person may experience depersonalization, derealization or both. Symptoms can last just a matter of moments or return at times over the years. The average onset age is 16, although depersonalization episodes can start anywhere from early to mid childhood. Less than 20% of people with this disorder start experiencing episodes after the age of 20.
  • Dissociative identity disorder. Formerly known as multiple personality disorder, this disorder is characterized by alternating between multiple identities. A person may feel like one or more voices are trying to take control in their head. Often these identities may have unique names, characteristics, mannerisms and voices. People with DID will experience gaps in memory of every day events, personal information and trauma. Women are more likely to be diagnosed, as they more frequently present with acute dissociative symptoms. Men are more likely to deny symptoms and trauma histories, and commonly exhibit more violent behavior, rather than amnesia or fugue states. This can lead to elevated false negative diagnosis.

Dissociative disorders usually develop as a way of dealing with trauma. Dissociative disorders most often form in children exposed to long-term physical, sexual or emotional abuse. Natural disasters and combat can also cause dissociative disorders.

Doctors diagnose dissociative disorders based on a review of symptoms and personal history. A doctor may perform tests to rule out physical conditions that can cause symptoms such as memory loss and a sense of unreality (for example, head injury, brain lesions or tumors, sleep deprivation or intoxication). If physical causes are ruled out, a mental health specialist is often consulted to make an evaluation.

Many features of dissociative disorders can be influenced by a person’s cultural background. In the case of dissociative identity disorder and dissociative amnesia, patients may present with unexplained, non-epileptic seizures, paralyses or sensory loss. In settings where possession is part of cultural beliefs, the fragmented identities of a person who has DID may take the form of spirits, deities, demons or animals. Intercultural contact may also influence the characteristics of other identities. For example, a person in India exposed to Western culture may present with an “alter” who only speaks English. In cultures with highly restrictive social conditions, amnesia is frequently triggered by severe psychological stress such as conflict caused by oppression. Finally, voluntarily induced states of depersonalization can be a part of meditative practices prevalent in many religions and cultures, and should not be diagnosed as a disorder.

The goals of treatment for dissociative disorders are to help the patient safely recall and process painful memories, develop coping skills, and, in the case of dissociative identity disorder, to integrate the different identities into one functional person. It is important to note that there is no drug that deals directly with treating dissociation itself. Rather, medications are used to combat additional symptoms that commonly occur with dissociative disorders.

Psychotherapy

Different psychotherapies are used to treat dissociative episodes to decrease symptom frequency and improve coping strategies for the experience of dissociation. Some of the more common therapies include:

  • Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) helps change the negative thinking and behavior associated with depression. The goal of this therapy is to recognize negative thoughts and to teach coping strategies.
  • Dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT) focuses on teaching coping skills to combat destructive urges, regulate emotions and improve relationships while adding validation. Involving individual and group work, DBT encourages practicing mindfulness techniques such as meditation, regulated breathing and self-soothing.
  • Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing(EMDR) is designed to alleviate the distress associated with traumatic memories. It combines the CBT techniques of re-learning thought patterns with visual stimulation exercises to access traumatic memories and replace the associated negative beliefs with positive ones.

Laura Zukerman

Owner and Founder At The Goddess Bibles A Memoir By Laura Zukerman

Becoming Your Inner Goddess

Goddess on Fiya..

Published by

Laura Zukerman

Laura Zukerman has a doctorate in Homeopathy and healing medical remedies. She is extremely familiar with neurology, and studies the brain. She is also a professional life coach and certified drug counselor. She was trained as a model for many years, first signing with Wilhelmina in Pennsylvania and then working with Wilhelmina throughout New York & Miami as well as many other modeling agencies. She did a bunch of shows with all the different agencies including Elite Model Management, One model, Bella models, New York Model Management and many others. Laura began walking for many designers & made many connections through networking at the shows she was doing. Laura became friends with many music artists while modeling and attending parties for fashion galas and began to network her way through the industry. Laura Zukerman did a worldwide commercial at the age of 20 for Mikki More with fox news broadcaster Megyn Kelly (Under L’Oreal). Laura Zukerman then met Al Mason, a man who ran this company called News Butterfly Television, and he signed her on to work for NBC, CBS, ABC & News Butterfly to be a TV anchor to host her TV shows on NBC, news channel 4, in NYC taxi cabs on Time Square billboards as well as many other outlets. During Mercedes-Benz Fashion weeks she would work months in advance prepping to call all of these designers so she could schedule interviews for behind the scenes footage at their shows. It was inspiring getting to know the ins and outs of the industry and paved her way into the fashion industry. Laura Zukerman then went on to become a freelance stylist & worked with many different celebrities on their wardrobes. She worked on styling campaigns for E-News, MTV, Conde Nast, The Hearst Corporation and more. Laura also worked in many stores throughout New York City and networked with many amazing people who were in fashion, television, actors, actresses, singers, models, professional athletes; and also met many people who were in the entertainment world in other aspects. As this began to grow, she decided to figure out a way to put this all together and told Al she wanted to start doing her charity events for non-profit fundraisers. Al then introduced Laura to many Ambassadors of the United Nations and Laura began to have a love for philanthropy and helping the environment. Laura then got signed on as a Model to Jorgen Jorgensen who was the CEO of Heartland Model Management. This company was based throughout the US & worldwide. Jorgen was originally from Malmo, Sweden but knew the ins and outs of all of the ways to walk the catwalk. Laura would have classes every Sunday with her agency to show the girls how to walk for all these different designers from around the world. Laura began walking for many designers and did many charity events. One of the biggest events was for DIYA save the children where Laura and her modeling agency had many amazing people from around the world at the event to help out the charity and raise money for kids in India specifically. Another awesome charity event Laura did was The American Heart Association Walk. One of her clients and dear friends Cynthia Flood who runs the Flood Sisters Kidney Foundation of America also has a big show every year with many famous designers and had asked Laura to be part of her show. Laura has also done many editorial shoots as a model herself & has featured in many magazines. Laura has also interviewed on Good Morning America. Laura became excellent friends with Hilary Flowers who did a bunch of fashion shows for fashion week & they became business partners under Al Mason's company to get clients on all of these different media outlets. Hillary Also ran a bunch of fashion shows for many designers that Laura took part. Laura said "It was so much fun meeting new people and networking with all of these great designers whom all had different approaches to their designs. It's amazing how many people are out there trying to get their foot in the door in the fashion industry and how many talented and creative designers there are that aren't noticed enough but should be. I learned this when working at very high-end fashion houses to working with private labels. I grew up owning a store with my mother and sister in our house, so fashion was always a huge love of mine & having my mother and some other family members to look up to as models; I knew that was the right direction for me to go in. I then got interested in singing and am working on a new album with some amazing producers in the industry as well as singers with whom I had become great friends. I was so lucky to have worked with these great producers on my first single "I Can't Help Myself" copyrights under Mitch Moses Productions. These producers not only worked with the likes of David Bowie, Marilyn Manson, Lenny Kravitz & the Beatles but they took a song from the 80s that they had the copyrights to and recreated it just for me. That was something so special and dear to my heart." Kevin Mccray also introduced Laura to many fashion designers, including the likes of Valentino, where he came up with his idea with Laura for Maison Valentino to create humanism & a story yet to be written. Laura inspired the Valentino Love collection. Laura met Kevin through a bunch of friends when she was working with hot 97 at the age of 19. Laura Zukerman was the CEO of a company called Double L Management where she managed up and coming artists, her business partner at the time was the Vice President of Hot 97, and she began learning all about the music industry and got to meet so many musicians doing that. Laura's older sister Jaclyn Zukerman has her magazine in Boston called Get Scene Magazine; Laura does fashion shows for the magazine all of the time! Jaclyn had a radio podcast out in Boston & that's when Laura first debuted the song I Can't Help Myself & sang it live from Boston Massachusetts. Jaclyn Zukerman works with many celebrities and up and coming artists and creatives. Laura's Mother is an author of two amazing books out on Amazon that every female even male should purchase it is called "Lessons for an Urban Goddess" the second book is called "The Urban Goddess Lesson." You can purchase these books through Amazon or on Kindle. They are life changing pieces of material! Laura's father is a Real Estate Developer worldwide and owns the company Whitestone Realty Capital. Laura says "There are so many awesome designers, actresses & singers that I have worked with and continue to work with because you build relationships with these people. They know what your dreams and aspirations are & they were once in your shoes so they understand and they want to help you. If you push yourself you can be anything you want to be, you have to know what you want and go for it." She goes on to say "Never give up on your dreams." Laura's motto for 2017 was "Work hard, Play hard & Slay Hard" Her new motto for the ending of 2018 is “The world is your oyster, go after it.” Laura Zukerman now has her own Instagram blog where she posts pictures of different styles she wears daily to help inspire others to dress to impress. You can find her on Instagram @lzukerman where she tries to keep it updated daily with many inspiring outfits. These are outfits that she wears out with friends & to events. Laura is complimented on her style, so she thought; why not create a blog where she can help not only friends but all young women to look & feel their best & be the best them that they can be. Laura's friends always ask for advice on how to dress & she asks a few simple questions: She starts with 1) where are you going? 2) what is it for? & 3) how do you want to be perceived? Then she tells them exactly what they should wear for the special occasion. Laura always gets great feedback afterward that they got so many compliments on their outfits & that always makes her feel good! Laura as well as her mother sister and family, in general, are all huge on female empowerment. Laura says "We strive to be our best selves & to present to the world the most amazing person you can be. To believe is to achieve & to dream it you have to do it. I have some great advice from one of my best friends who always said, whatever it is you're doing, always give it your best. You never know where that could take you & you always want to present your best self to the world. Not only for you but to show others that you can and are doing what you were made to do." Acting is something that Laura loves doing, and eventually, she would like to start acting more. Laura recently made her second song off her first album coming out summer of 2017 called " Listen to Me" Laura Zukerman is now the Brand Ambassador for Pookie and Sebastian. She will be up on Amazon Worldwide where you can find her wearing all of the fall 2017 merchandise that you can now shop for from anywhere in the world very soon! Pookie and Sebastian stores located in the heart of New York City. Laura Zukerman currently works with Fashion Designers all over the world and loves it so much; she has no begun to travel to meet these designers and do photo shoots, fashion shows, and interviews wherever they may be! More to come soon! Laura studied Fashion Design at FIT & is now taking what she knows and putting everything to good use. Get ready for Laura Zukerman's Fashion Line to Drop. <3 Laura Zukerman is a GLOBAL AMBASSADOR for CREATIONS FOR A CAUSE. With this, Laura can make a difference both globally and locally. Laura is inspiring others to make a difference in the world by volunteering and giving back to the community and the world around her. Laura is working with many fashion & skincare brands internationally to bring you awesome products. Sometimes even FREE GIVEAWAYS. Lauras Marketing Career keeps expanding as her imagination runs wild with new ideas on and off the Television. Movies, Billboards, Advertisements for many companies, Songs for celebrities, she has done it all. Moreover, she's doing more! As she becomes the Marketing Manager of a big Global marketing firm, where she will be the project manager for the North American region! Get excited because the Marketing Business is about to explode. (in the right way of course) Laura Zukerman also has many experiences in Public Relations and Event Management. Her brother Steven Zukerman along with his wife Sharon Zukerman own the event space, Life the Place to Be in Ardsley, New York. Her mother was the head of The March of Dimes for over 15 years. Laura Zukerman has also been the Brand Ambassador for the New York Rangers Love Collection Ambassador for Valentino Givenchy Tiffany & CO Fashion Manufacturer for: YSL, D&G & MacBook AIR Escada Badgley Mischka Tory Burch Rebecca Minkoff Michael Kors Free People Anthropologie Urban Outfitters Steve Madden Zara & more Laura Zukerman was the Fashion Editor in Chief at No.3 Magazine, and now she is working on a second magazine to the be the creative director for the no.3 magazine's second edition that will be all fashion based. www.number3mag.com Laura Zukerman is now working on a big project with some of the most empowering women in the world. Laura can not wait to tell you all about it; it is going to be amazing. If you or anyone you know who might be interested, Laura and her team of 3 other women are looking for tons of new faces to hit the modeling realm. Laura has taken ownership of Heartland Model Management, and this means she could have you walking for any designer in the world in just a few weeks, with some practice, some great photos and from the help of some of the most significant models in the world! We will coach and train you on how to walk the catwalk; we will bring in designers who will pick and choose who they want to be in their shows! We will be coordinating a ton of events for fundraisers on many organizations. We know Instagram is fantastic, but unless you have the right connections and the right people to help you get to where you want to be, you cant achieve it all alone! You need our help to BRAND you! With Laura and her team, you are going to be unstoppable! GET IN THE NOW, AND START WHAT YOU DREAM OF DOING. We bring you styling, professional portfolio shoots, designers worldwide, TV and advertising worldwide, magazine editorials, the fashion awards and much more! Laura Zukerman is the regional sales manager for Street Fashion Week worldwide! http://streetfashionweek.net/ For any designers that are interested in learning more about Street Fashion Week and want to become involved in SFW, contact Laura Zukerman at her email - lzukerman58@gmail.com Laura Zukerman is the Brand Manager and Buyer for Season-Seven and Hilite, we just opened on sept 9th, however we have been around since 2012 as Bou7ique. They are one store combined into two stores. Season-Seven is for women and is on one side and Hilite is for men and is on the other side. Bou7ique is the name of our other two locations which are in Lancaster, PA and Newark, DE. You might have known us well in Miami as well, however, that store was bought out by a hotel. We are looking to expand to more locations within the next year. If you follow our instagram or facebook page, all of the brands we follow are brands we work with and you will be able to see some of the awesome brands we sell. The best part about it is that SS19 is going to be an even bigger array of brands that you won’t want to miss out on! So come shop our stores - Season Seven for women and Hilite for men on 47 Delancey Street NY NY 10002, the lower east side, it is closest to forsyth street and chrystie street, however it is right on Delancey. Just a heads up if you don’t know the area well. Believe me, you will walk out with an amazing new wardrobe! The season seven instagram page is @seasonsevenboutique give us a follow or just check us out! We are open as of now Monday-Friday from 10-7 Eastern Standard time. Laura Zukerman is also a member of ASCAP- the American Society of Composers, Authors and publishers. It is a not for a profit performance rights organization that protects its members musical copyrights. Laura Zukerman is also a partner at WHITESTONE REALTY CAPITAL. You can also follow Laura Zukerman's Instagram account where she updates daily her outfits & outings at www.instagram.com/lzukerman Laura Zukerman also has a new clothing company called AL https://zukerup88.wixsite.com/alcollection Laura Zukerman's work is also updated as she makes her portfolio debut: http://lzukerman58.wixsite.com/laurapaigezukerman Laura Zukerman will begin grad school to be finished at USC, University of Southern California, to major and finish in hospitality management. Laura Zukerman is now signed to UK Models located in London, United Kingdom. Based worldwide globally. Laura Zukerman is also now the NEW Brand Ambassador for ESIO - https://esioelegance.com/ - shop the items, I will be giving out free merchandise and discounts on my Instagram account! follow my Instagram @laurazukerman104 Laura Zukerman also works in collaboration with @johnnywas www.johnnywas.com - shop the items below. Laura Zukerman is now working on a huge event in collaboration with the United Nations, internationally, it will be fashion based. STAY TUNED! Laura Zukerman is a Creative Director, Marketing Strategist, Media Innovator, Fashion Icon, Music Manager, Television Host, Public Relations Coordinator and Events Coordinator. Laura has her PHD in psychology and neurology.

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