CANCER SUCKS

In 2017, 9.6 million people are estimated to have died from the various forms of cancer. Every sixth death in the world is due to cancer, making it the second leading cause of death – second only to cardiovascular diseases.1

Progress against many other causes of deaths and demographic drivers of increasing population sizelife expectancy and — particularly in higher-income countries — aging populations mean that the total number of cancer deaths continues to increase. This is a very personal topic to many: nearly everyone knows or has lost someone dear to them from this collection of diseases.

Summary

Cancers are defined by the National Cancer Institute as a collection of diseases in which abnormal cells can divide and spread to nearby tissue. Cancers can arise in many parts of the body – leading to a range of cancer types, as shown below – and in some cases spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph systems. In this entry we provide an overview of all types of cancer.

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death

Almost 10 Million people die from cancer annually

Cancer is one of the world’s largest health problems. The Global Burden of Disease estimates that 9.56 million people died prematurely as a result of cancer in 2017. Every sixth death in the world is due to cancer.2

The Global Burden of Disease is a major global study on the causes and risk factors for death and disease published in the medical journal The Lancet.3

Cancer is a particularly common cause of death in richer countries where people are less likely do die of infectious diseases and causes of deaths that lead to very early deaths for people in poverty.

The chart is shown for the global total, but can be explored for any country or region using the “change country” toggle. Switching to one of the richer countries shows that the share of deaths attributed to cancer is higher.

Because is one of the leading causes of death it is one of the world’s most pressing problems to make progress against this disease.Number of deaths by cause, World, 2017
02 million6 million10 million16 millionCardiovascular diseases17.79 millionCancers9.56 millionRespiratory diseases3.91 millionLower respiratory infections2.56 millionDementia2.51 millionDigestive diseases2.38 millionNeonatal disorders1.78 millionDiarrheal diseases1.57 millionDiabetes1.37 millionLiver diseases1.32 millionRoad injuries1.24 millionKidney disease1.23 millionTuberculosis1.18 millionHIV/AIDS954,492Suicide793,823Malaria619,827Homicide405,346Parkinson disease340,639Drowning295,210Meningitis288,021Nutritional deficiencies269,997Protein-energy malnutrition231,771Maternal disorders193,639Alcohol use disorders184,934Drug use disorders166,613Conflict129,720Hepatitis126,391Fire120,632Poisonings72,371Heat (hot and cold exposure)53,350Terrorism26,445Natural disasters9,603CC BY

Source: IHME, Global Burden of Disease
19902017 Change country

Deaths from cancer

In the chart we see the total number of deaths in 2017 attributed to the range of different cancers.

The group of tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancers claimed the largest number of lives – 1.9 million in 2017. Next follow colon and rectum, stomach and liver cancer, all claiming between 800,000 and 900,000 globally in 2017.

This chart also allows exploring deaths by country (click ‘change country’ at the bottom of the chart).

In exploring patterns across various countries, we see that tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer is the leading form of cancer deaths across most high and middle-income countries. However, the leading form in lower income countries varies: colon and rectum; liver; cervical; stomach; breast and prostrate all top the list in several countries.Cancer deaths by type, World, 2017

Total annual number of deaths from cancers across all ages and both sexes, broken down by cancer type. 
0200,000600,0001 million1.4 million1.8 millionTracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer1.88 millionColon and rectum cancer896,040Stomach cancer864,989Liver cancer819,435Breast cancer611,625Pancreatic cancer441,083Esophageal cancer435,959Prostate cancer415,910Leukemia347,583Cervical cancer259,671Brain and nervous system cancer247,143Bladder cancer196,546Lip and oral cavity cancer193,696Ovarian cancer175,982Gallbladder and biliary tract cancer173,974Kidney cancer138,526Larynx cancer126,471Other pharynx cancer117,412Multiple myeloma107,114Other cancers102,920Uterine cancer85,239Nasopharynx cancer69,550Non-melanoma skin cancer65,097Malignant skin melanoma61,665Thyroid cancer41,235Hodgkin lymphoma32,560Testicular cancer7,662CC BY

Source: IHME, Global Burden of Disease (GBD)
19902017 Change country

Cancer deaths by age

How are cancer deaths distributed across age groups? And how did this change over time?

In this chart we see the breakdown of total cancer deaths by broad age category, ranging from under-5s to those over 70 years old.

Almost half – 46% in 2017 – of all people who die from cancer are 70 or older. Another 41 percent are between 50 and 69 years old – so that 87% of all cancer victims are older than 50 years.

The distribution of deaths across the age spectrum has changed notably since 1990. The share of deaths which occur in those aged over 70 has increased by 8 percentage points, whilst the share in those aged 50-69 and 15-49 has fallen.

Collectively, children and adolescents under 14 years old account for around one percent of cancer deaths — this equates to around 110,000 children per year.  Deaths from cancer, by age, World

Total annual cancer deaths differentiated by age category across both sexes. Data includes all forms of cancer. 
19901995200020052010201520170%20%40%60%80%100%70+ years old50-69 years old15-49 years old5-14 years oldUnder-5sCC BY

Source: IHME, Global Burden of Disease (GBD)
 Change country Relative

1999
 70+ years old41.97%
 50-69 years old40.23%
 15-49 years old15.74%
 5-14 years old1.18%
 Under-5s0.89%
 Total100%

Cancer prevalence

What is the prevalence of cancers across the world’s population?

The charts here provide data on the share of a given population with any form of cancer. This is first shown collectively across all cancer types, followed by breakdown by cancer type.

The prevalence of cancer around the world

The map shows that we tend to see a higher prevalence of cancer in higher-income countries.

Prevalence of cancer ranges from approximately 5.5 percent of the population in the US down to around 0.4 percent in the countries shown in light yellow.

Globally the share of people with cancer reached 1.3% in 2017.

Related chart – the number of people with cancerThis map shows the total number of people with cancer across all countries of the world.

Share of population with cancer, 2017

Share of total population with any form of cancer, measured as the age-standardized percentage. This share has been
age-standardized assuming a constant age structure to compare prevalence between countries and through time.
No data0%0.5%1%2%3%4%5%6%CC BY

Source: IHME, Global Burden of Disease
19902017

Prevalence of cancer by type

When broken down by type of cancer we see that breast cancer is globally the most prevalent form. Following breast cancer are prostrate and colon & rectum cancer.

When you change this chart to another country you see that across most countries these are the top three cancer forms.

Related chart – the number of people with cancer, by typeThis chart shows the numbers of people with different types of cancer. As we explored above, the prevalence of breast cancer is highest globally; an estimated 17 million had breast cancer in 2017. 10 million had prostate cancer; and 9 million had colon & rectum cancer.

Share of population with cancer, World, 2017
0%0.05%0.1%0.15%0.2%Breast cancer0.21%Prostate cancer0.13%Colon and rectum cancer0.12%Cervical cancer0.05%Tracheal, bronchus, & lung cancer0.04%Uterine cancer0.04%Stomach cancer0.04%Bladder cancer0.03%Non-melanoma skin cancer0.03%Kidney cancer0.03%Thyroid cancer0.03%Brain & nervous system cancer0.02%Lip & oral cancer0.02%Ovarian cancer0.02%Larynx cancer0.01%Esophageal cancer0.01%Liver cancer0.01%Testicular cancer<0.01%Nasopharynx cancer<0.01%Pancreatic cancer<0.01%Gallbladder & biliary tract cancer<0.01%CC BY

Source: IHME, Global Burden of Disease

Note: To allow comparisons between countries and over time this metric is age-standardized.
19902017 Change country

Cancer prevalence by age

Age breakdown of people with cancer

We see that globally the majority of cancers occur in older populations. Approximately 70% of cancer cases occur in those aged over 50.

The chart shows that in 2017, 43 percent were aged between 50 and 69 and 27 percent were over 70 years old.

Around five percent of global cancers occur in children and adolescents younger than 15. These are predominantly childhood cancers within the group of leukemia.Prevalence of cancer by age, World
19901995200020052010201520170%20%40%60%80%100%70+ year olds50-69 year olds15-49 year olds5-14 year oldsUnder-5sCC BY

Source: IHME, Global Burden of Disease
 Change country Relative

Prevalence of cancer by age

This bar chart compares the prevalence across ages.

Globally 6% of those over 70 years had cancer in 2017. Of the population younger than 50 the prevalence is well under 1% globally.

In all these charts it is possible to switch to any other country: In the US more than 20% of people older than 70 years are living with cancer according to the estimates of the Global Burden of Disease shown here. In Spain it is 9%.Share of population with cancer by age, World, 2017
0%1%2%3%4%5%6%70+ years olds6.27%50-69 years old3.32%All ages1.36%15-49 years olds0.64%Under-5s0.47%5-14 years old0.2%CC BY

Source: Global Burden of Disease (IHME)
19902017 Change country

The global disease burden from cancer

Death rates only capture the mortality of cancer. However, the impact of cancer on people’s lives is more than that. Many live with cancer for long periods and it is important to also capture the morbidity caused by cancer.

The Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY) is a metric that captures the total burden of disease – both from years of life lost due to premature death and from years lived with the disease. One DALY equals one lost year of healthy life.

The map shows DALYs from cancers, measured per 100,000 individuals. This is age-standardized to allow comparisons between countries and over time.This is measured across all cancer types.

Also shown are disease burden rates broken down by cancer types. We see that at a global level, the largest burden results from tracheal, bronchus and lung cancer, followed by liver, stomach, colon & rectum, and breast cancer.

Extending the timeline of this chart shows how the disease burden has changed for each type of cancer.Disease burden rates from cancers, 2017

Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) per 100,000 individuals from all cancer types. 
DALYs measure the total burden of disease – both from years of life lost due to premature death and years lived with a
disability. One DALY equals one lost year of healthy life.
No data1,0001,5002,0002,5003,0003,5004,0004,500>5,000CC BY

Source: IHME, Global Burden of Disease

Note: To allow comparisons between countries and over time this metric is age-standardized.
19902017

Disease burden rates by cancer types, World, 2017

Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) per 100,000 individuals from all cancer types.
DALYs measure the total burden of disease – both from years of life lost due to premature death and years lived with a
disability. One DALY equals one lost year of healthy life.
0100200300400500Tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer503.05Liver cancer253.56Stomach cancer235.94Colon and rectum cancer235.73Breast cancer216.29Esophageal cancer119.91Pancreatic cancer112.25Brain & nervous system cancer111.92Cervical cancer98.18Prostate cancer90.01Lip & oral cancer64.23Ovarian cancer57.11Bladder cancer45.26Gallbladder & biliary tract cancer43.22Kidney cancer41.14Larynx cancer39.89Uterine cancer26.27Nasopharynx cancer25.45Non-melanoma skin cancer16.64Thyroid cancer14.08Testicular cancer4.74CC BY

Source: IHME, Global Burden of Disease

Note: To allow comparisons between countries and over time this metric is age-standardized.
19902017 Change country

Is the mortality of cancer on the rise?

With an increase in global cancer deaths from 5.7 to 9.6 million since 1990, and similar trends in the number of absolute deaths across most countries, it may seem reasonable to assume that cancer death rates are on the rise as well. But is this really the case?

Cancer: Comparing absolute deaths, the death rate, and the age-standardized death rate

Whilst a crucial metric of total disease burden and mortality, the absolute number of deaths has two shortcomings: it fails to account for changes in population size and age structure.

As we have explored above, the majority of cancer deaths occur in those aged over 50 years old; this means we should expect the total number of cancer deaths to increase as a population ages. Rising life expectancyaging populations, and population growth compound each other and are the main drivers of the rising absolute number of cancer deaths.

To account for the rise in the total population epidemiologists rely on rates. Typically they report the number of deaths per 100,000 individuals.

To account for the changing age-structure they rely on so called age-standardized death rates. This metric corrects for the effects of a changing age structure by normalizing the death rate to a fixed reference population structure and thereby telling us how the death rate from cancers would have changed if the age structure of the population had not changed.4

The chart shows how each metric of cancer deaths has changed since 1990.

The total number of cancer deaths has increased globally. As we have seen before the total number of cancer deaths has increased more than 50 percent since 1990. This metric however does not correct for the increasing size or the aging of the world population.

The death rate from cancers has also increased globally. This metric corrects for the population size and the comparison with the increase of the absolute number of global cancer deaths shows that much of the total increase of cancer deaths is driven by the increase of the global population. The rate only increase a quarter as much as the absolute number of deaths.

The age-standardized death rate from cancers is falling globally. Corrected in this way for both the increase and the aging of the world population the number of deaths from cancer is falling. This metric shows that the world is slowly making progress against cancer. The age-standardized death rate from cancer has fallen by 15% since 1990.

These changes can be viewed in for all countries in the world by using the “Change country” option.Change in three measures of cancer deaths, World

This chart is comparing cancer deaths, the cancer death rate, and the age-standardized death rate.
199019952000200520102017-10%0%+10%+20%+30%+40%+50%+60%Cancer deathsCancer death rate (notage-standardized)Age-standardized cancer death rateCC BY

Source: OurWorldinData based on IHME, GBD
19902017 Change country Relative change

Age-standardized cancer death rates by country

The age-standardized death rate from all cancer types are shown in this visualization.

The global trend shows what we have seen in the previous section: while the number of cancer deaths is increasing, individual death rates are falling. In 1990, 143 people out of every 100,000 died from cancer globally — by 2017 this had fallen to 121 per 100,000.

It is possible to switch this chart to the map view. This shows that in 2017, most countries have age-standardized death rates of 50 to 150 deaths per 100,000 individuals.Death rate from cancer, 2017

The annual number of deaths from all cancers per 100,000 people.
No data050100125150175200250500CC BY

Source: IHME, Global Burden of Disease (GBD)

Note: To allow comparisons between countries and over time this metric is age-standardized.
19902017

Age-standardized death rates by type of cancer

For the purposes of assessing the total incidence of cancer, in the chart above we grouped all cancer types together to look at overall trends. However, death rates and progress in reducing mortality incidence varies across the many forms of cancer. In the chart we see the individual age-standardized death rates across cancer types. This is again measured as the number of deaths per 100,000 individuals.

As we would expect from the leading cause of cancer deaths, rates in tracheal, bronchus and lung cancer are highest globally at 24 per 100,000. This has fallen slightly from 26 per 100,000 in the early 1990s, with even greater declines in some countries (in the US, rates have fallen from 47 to 34 per 100,000).

The death rate from stomach cancer has fallen substantially – from 19 per 100,000 in 1990 to 11 per 100,000 in 2017 – and contributed to much of the slow global progress against cancer mortality.

In some cases we have seen dramatic declines over the last few decades. For some, such as stomach cancer there has been notable progress — declining from 19 to 11 deaths per 100,000.Cancer death rates by type, World

The number of deaths from different types of cancer per 100,000 individuals.
To allow comparisons between countries and over time this metric is age-standardized.
19901995200020052010201520170510152025Tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancerColon and rectum cancerStomach cancerLiver cancerBreast cancerPancreatic cancerProstate cancerEsophageal cancerCervical cancerBrain and nervous system cancerBladder cancerLip and oral cavity cancerGallbladder and biliary tract cancerOvarian cancerKidney cancerLarynx cancerOther pharynx cancerUterine cancerNasopharynx cancerNon-melanoma skin cancerThyroid cancerTesticular cancerCC BY

Source: IHME, Global Burden of Disease (GBD)
19902017 Change country

Conclusion

The global trends on cancer mortality — as presented in the data above — shows that the world is making progress against cancer once we take into account how the size and age-structure of the world have changed. This represents progress, but this progress is very slow. The age-standardized death rate from cancer has fallen by 15% since 1990.

The number of cancer deaths is increasing as the world population is growing and aging

The number of cancer deaths has increased from around 5.7 million in 1990 to 8.8 million in 2017 as this chart shows.

As we just saw, this is happening for two big reasons: The first one is that the world population is increasing and with it the number of annual deaths. In 1990 49 Million people died and since then the number of total deaths has increased by more than 7 Million – as this chart shows.

The second big reason is that the world made rapid progress against causes of death that once killed people early in life – especially infectious diseases. [See our entry on causes of death for more information.] This means that the world population is aging and more people are dying of causes that kill people at an older age, like cancer.

Because the world is getting richer and fewer are dying an early death we can expect the number of people dying from cancer to increase further.Cancer deaths by type, World

Annual cancer deaths by cancer type, measured as the total number of deaths across all age categories and both
sexes. Smaller categories of cancer types with global deaths <100,000 in 2016 have been grouped into a collective
category ‘Other cancers’. See sources for list of grouped cancers.
19901995200020052010201602 million4 million6 million8 millionLarynx cancerOther pharynxcancerOvarian cancerLip and oral cavitycancerBrain and nervoussystem cancerNon-HodgkinlymphomaLeukemiaOther cancersGallbladder cancerKidney cancerBladder cancerCervical cancerProstate cancerPancreatic cancerEsophageal cancerBreast cancerLiver cancerColon and rectumcancerStomach cancerTracheal,bronchus, and lungcancerCC BY

Source: IHME, Global Burden of Disease (GBD)

Note: All cancer types with less than 100,000 global deaths in 2016 into a collective category ‘Other cancers’.
 Change country Relative

Smoking and lung cancer

Lung cancer and smoking around the world since 1950

This chart shows death rates from lung cancer in men in the US and Spain since 1950. It is possible to add many more countries to this chart.

In many countries we see a significant rise, peak and then decline in lung cancer death rates in the 20th century. In the United States, the death rate peaked in the 1980s in men. In Spain this peak was later, only in the 1990s.

These trends are driven by the trends in smoking. The other chart shows the sales of cigarettes per person. Smoking is the biggest risk factor for lung cancer and we see that the trends in lung cancer follow those in smoking with a lag of around 20 years.

In 2017 7 Million people globally died a premature death because of smoking. The fact that smoking causes lung cancer is the major reason for the high death toll of smoking.

It is possible to add the data to lung cancer in women in the US to this chart. In the US it was once much more common for men to smoke so that the peaks of lung cancer for men are much higher. Smoking became more common for women only later so that lung cancer death rates for women peaked later.Lung cancer death rates

Number of lung cancer deaths per 100,000 people. 
Add country19501960197019801990200201020304050Spain – MaleUnited States – MaleCC BY

Source: WHO, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
19502002

Sales of cigarettes per adult per day

Figures include manufactured cigarettes, as well as estimated number of hand-rolled cigarettes, per adult (ages 15+)
per day.
Add country19001920194019601980200020140 cigarettes2 cigarettes4 cigarettes6 cigarettes8 cigarettes10 cigarettesSpainUnited StatesCC BY

Source: International Smoking Statistics (2017)
19002014

Share of cancer deaths attributed to smoking

The world map shows the Global Burden of Disease estimates of the share of cancer deaths that can be attributed to smoking.

Globally more than one in five cancer deaths (22% in 2016) are attributed to smoking – switch to the chart tab to see the global estimate.

In most richer countries the share is higher – the average in high income countries is 28% in 2016.

In poor countries, where fewer people were smoking in the past, tobacco is responsible for a much smaller faction of cancer deaths.Share of cancer deaths attributed to tobacco, 2016

Share of total cancer deaths attributed to tobacco smoking (which is inclusive of smoking and secondhand smoke).
This impact is measured across total cancer types.
No data0%5%10%20%30%40%50%60%CC BY

Source: IHME, Global Burden of Disease (GBD)
19902016

Cancer over the long run

Cancer deaths in the US since 1930

This charts provides a long run perspective on cancer death rates, from 1930 in the United States.

In orange we see again the pronounced peaks for lung cancers in men and then later in women.

For many other forms of cancer the age-standardized death rates show a long-term decline:

  • Breast cancer death rates started falling in the early 1990s.
  • The death rate for prostate increased until the mid 90s and then started to decline sharply.
  • Colon and rectum cancers declined over the last decades in both men and women.
  • Pancreas cancer and leukemia increased until the 1970s and then remained at around the same level.
  • Uterus, liver, and stomach cancers declined continuously over this 80 year period.

Cancer death rates in the United States over the long-run

Age-standardized death rates from various forms of cancer in males and females, measured as the number of deaths
per 100,000 individuals. Age-standardization is based on normalisation to the standard US population structure in the
year 2000.
193019401950196019701980199020002011020406080Lung and Bronchus (male)Lung and Bronchus (female)Breast (female)Prostate (male)Colon and Rectum (male)Colon and Rectum (female)Pancreas (male)Liver (male)Pancreas (female)Leukemia (male)Uterus (female)Liver (female)Stomach (male)Stomach (female)CC BY

Source: American Cancer Society
19302011

What can be done about cancer?

Cancer survival rates

Cancer death rates are falling; five-year survival rates are rising

Global cancer deaths are rising: in 1990 5.7 million died from cancer; by 2016 this had increased to 8.9 million. But it’s also true that the world today has more people, and more older people, who are more likely to die from cancer. To understand what is happening we therefore have to correct for the population increase and ask for the rate – the number of deaths per 100,000 people – and we have to adjust for ageing.

When we compare these metrics (shown here) we see that age-standardized cancer death rates are falling globally. Death rates which correct for ageing show a 17 percent decline from 1990 to 2016.

Five-year survival rates have increased

Why are cancer death rates falling? One hypothesis is that cancer prevalence is falling (i.e. less people have cancer). Is this true?

Globally, no. The share of people with cancer (even when corrected for ageing) has been slowly increasing in recent decades. Global cancer prevalence has risen from 0.54 percent to 0.64 percent since 1990 (largely due to smoking). In some countries – the US, for example – the age-corrected prevalence has been fairly constant in recent decades (with the rate of new cases actually falling).

If death rates are falling but prevalence is rising or constant, then it must be the case that people with cancer have better or longer survival rates. We see this clearly in the USA when we look at the change in five-year survival rates across cancer types. This is shown in the chart as the change from 1970-77 to 2007-2013.

Here we see that on aggregate five-year survival rates for all cancers increased from 50.3 to 67 percent. But we also see significant differences not only in start or end survival rates, but the change over time. Prostate cancer has close to 99 percent five-year survival, but has also seen major progress from a rate of 69 percent in the 1970s. In contrast, pancreas has low five-year survival rates at 8.2 percent, up from 2.5 percent.

There are two key factors which could contribute to improved five-year survival rates: earlier detection and/or improved treatment. Defining the exact attribution of each is difficult, and varies depending on cancer type. But there have been some studies which have attempted to do so. Scott Alexander published a very good overview of the relative impact of detection versus treatment here.

One way to test whether survival rates only increased from early diagnosis is to look at how survival has changed for each stage of cancer: if detection was the only improvement then we would see no increase in survival rates in later cancer stages. National cancer statistics published by the US government show increases in survival rate within all stages (from very early to late-stage).5

Other studies focused on specific cancer types show similar results.6

Tumours have gotten smaller in recent decades – the result of earlier detection. Studies have shown that this can account for a significant share of survival improvements: one study attributed early detection as 61 percent and 28 percent of improved survival in localized-stage and regional-stage breast cancer, respectively7 But even when correcting for size and early detection, we have seen improvements. 

This suggests better treatment has played a role too.

In both detection and treatment, we’re seeing progress. This is important because of the large toll of cancer: Globally every sixth death is due to cancer – this makes it the world’s second largest cause of death. Progress here is important for many.

Interactive chart: The same data shown in the chart can be viewed and downloaded in this interactive here. Cancer survival rates in the US by race can be seen here.

Five year cancer survival rates usa v2 01

Cancer survival rates across the world

In this charts, we provide the widest coverage across countries of five-year survival rates by cancer type.

This data was published in the The Lancet in 2015 by Allemani et al.8

You can explore the range of countries using the “Change country” selection in the interactive chart.Five year survival rates by cancer type, United Kingdom, 2009

Share of adults (aged 15-99), and children (aged 0-14) for leukaemia, diagnosed with cancer who survive at least five
years following their diagnosis date. The year provided represents the year of diagnosis.
0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%Prostate83.2%Breast81.1%Cervix60.2%Rectum56.6%Colon53.8%Leukaemia47%Ovary36.9%Stomach18.5%Lung9.6%Liver9.3%CC BY

Source: Allemani et al. (2015)
19992009 Change country

Cancer survival rates across the world by type

The three maps below show how the five-year survival rates for lung, breast and liver cancer vary across the world. This data is again from Allemani et al. 2015 Lancet paper.9

Lung cancer survival rates across the world

In lung cancer Japan has the highest five-year survival rates at approximately 30 percent.

In contrast to this only 7% of lung cancer patients are alive five years after diagnosis in Chile, Bulgaria and Mongolia.Five year survival rates from lung cancer, 2009

Share of adults (aged 15-99) diagnosed with lung cancer who survive at least five years following their diagnosis date.
The year provided represents the year of diagnosis.
No data<5%7.5%10%12.5%15%17.5%20%22.5%>25%CC BY

Source: Allemani et al. (2015)
19992009

Breast cancer survival rates across the world

In breast cancer, higher income countries in particular across North America, Europe and Oceania tend to have five-year survival rates over 80 percent in 2009.

This is almost double that of the lowest nation with available data in 2009 – Jordan – at only 43 percent. A decade earlier the survival rate in Algeria was as low as 17%.Five year survival rates from breast cancer, 2009

Share of adults (aged 15-99) diagnosed with breast cancer who survive at least five years following their diagnosis date.
The year provided represents the year of diagnosis.
No data10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%CC BY

Source: Allemani et al. (2015)
19992009

Liver cancer survival rates across the world

Compared to breast cancer the five year survival rates for liver cancer are much lower around he world.

The lowest survival rate in 2009 was in Romania with just 2.3%. In Japan the chance to survive for five years was more than 10-times higher: 27% in 2009.Five year survival rate from liver cancer, 2009

Share of adults (aged 15-99) diagnosed with liver cancer who survive at least five years following their diagnosis date.
The year provided represents the year of diagnosis.
No data0%2.5%5%7.5%10%12.5%15%17.5%>20%CC BY

Source: Allemani et al. (2015)
19992009

Cancer survival rates by income

In these two charts we see that the five-year survival rates – following diagnosis – are lower in poorer countries.

Especially for breast cancer survival rates are lower in poorer countries. In high income countries survival rates are above 80% while in many poor countries it is well below 80% or even 60%.

The relationship between lung cancer survival rate and average is less strong. There is significant variability in five-year survival rates between countries of a similar income, but the lowest survival rates are again reported from the poorest countries.Five-year breast cancer survival rates vs. GDP per capita, 2009

Share of those diagnosed with breast cancer who survive at least five years following diagnosis, versus gross domestic
product (GDP) per capita, measured in 2011 international-$.
GDP per capita, PPP (constant 2011 international $)$10,000$20,000$30,000$40,000$50,000$60,000LINEARFive-year breast cancer survival rate0%20%40%60%80%ChinaIndiaUnited StatesIndonesiaBrazilRussiaJapanGermanyTurkeyThailandUnited KingdomSouth AfricaAlgeriaMalaysiaRomaniaPortugalCzech RepublicTunisiaJordanNorwayMaltaAfricaAsiaEuropeNorth AmericaOceaniaSouth AmericaCC BY

Source: Allemani et al. (2015), World Bank – WDI
19992009 Search Average annual change

Five-year lung cancer survival rate vs. GDP per capita, 2009

Share of those diagnosed with lung cancer who survive at least five years following diagnosis, versus gross domestic
product (GDP) per capita, measured in 2011 international-$.
GDP per capita, PPP (constant 2011 international $)$10,000$20,000$30,000$40,000$50,000$60,000Five-year lung cancer survival rate0%5%10%15%20%25%30%35%ChinaIndiaUnited StatesIndonesiaBrazilRussiaJapanGermanyTurkeyFranceUnited KingdomSouth KoreaColombiaSpainArgentinaPolandAlgeriaAustraliaChileEcuadorPortugalAustriaSwitzerlandIsraelJordanDenmarkSlovakiaFinlandNorwayIrelandLithuaniaMongoliaLatviaSloveniaMauritiusCyprusAfricaAsiaEuropeNorth AmericaOceaniaSouth AmericaCC BY

Source: Allemani et al. (2015), World Bank – WDI
19992009 Search Average annual change

Are cancers caused by genetic or external factors?

Are cancers caused by genetic factors, or determined by external factors such as behavioral, lifestyle and environmental exposure?

The relative contribution of genetic factors (DNA replication and tissue type) versus external exposure has been a dominant topic within cancer research. The outcomes of such studies are highly important — if genetic factors are found to be dominant then early detection and understanding of the relative vulnerability of different DNA and tissue variations arguably present the best opportunity to reduce cancer burden. In contrast, if external and environmental risk factors dominate, then lifestyle choice which reduces risk exposure is crucial for this reduction.

In a 2015 paper Cristian Tomasetti and Bert Vogelstein, published in Science, the authors conclude that only one-third of cancers are attributable to environmental factors or inherited predispositions; the vast majority result from “bad luck” – random mutations which can occur when DNA replicates in normal non-cancerous cells.10

This study therefore argued that, beyond some cancer types which are deterministic (D-tumors) and can be reduced through lifestyle factors or vaccines, the most promising approach to reduction of cancer deaths across most cancers (replicative, R-tumors) is early detection.

This paper has been highly contest within the scientific literature. A number of later publications in Science provided a rebuttal to these conclusions, suggesting analytical flaws in the prior analysis, and epidemiological evidence which suggests otherwise.11

Such studies have argue that the role of ‘chance’ in cancer development was overstated by Tomasetti and Vogelstein, and the role of environmental exposures was understated. Wu et al. (2016) published a study in Naturewhich concluded that intrinsic factors (which relates to the ‘bad luck’ DNA replication) account for less than 10-30 percent of cancer development, with the majority resulting from extrinsic risk factors.12

The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study attempt — using risk-exposure relationships — to provide attribution of certain risk factors to disease burden and mortality outcomes.13 These risk factors include a wide range, including smoking, diet and nutrition, obesity, alcohol intake, air pollution, & environmental exposures to carcinogens.

In the chart we see IHME estimates of the share of global cancer deaths which are attributed to one of these major risk factors. For example, 84 percent of tracheal, bronchus and lung cancer deaths are attributed to risk factors such as smoking and air pollution. The remaining share of deaths we would therefore assume no attribution to risk factors, and would occur naturally in the absence of such risks (i.e. deaths from lung cancer which would result if no one smoked, zero air pollution etc.).14Share of cancer deaths attributed to risk factors, 2016

Risk factors include known risks such as smoking, diet and nutrition, obesity, lack of physical inactivity, alcohol
consumption, air pollution, and environmental exposures.
The remaining share therefore represents deaths which would be expected to have occurred in the absence of these
known risk factors.
0%20%40%60%80%100%Cervical cancer100%Mesothelioma91.4%Tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer84.1%Larynx cancer71.8%Esophageal cancer69.8%Lip and oral cavity cancer69.8%Nasopharynx cancer64%Colon and rectum cancer53.2%Liver cancer41.5%Uterine cancer36.5%Kidney cancer32.3%Bladder cancer32%Pancreatic cancer27.5%Breast cancer26.8%Stomach cancer18.4%Gallbladder and biliary tract cancer15%Leukemia14.8%Ovarian cancer12.3%Thyroid cancer9.4%Multiple myeloma6.8%Non-Hodgkin lymphoma5.1%Prostate cancer4.4%Brain and nervous system cancer0%Hodgkin lymphoma0%Malignant skin melanoma0%Non-melanoma skin cancer0%Testicular cancer0%CC BY

Source: IHME, Global Burden of Disease

Cancer by income, poverty and inequality level of the country

Cancer deaths by income

Whilst cancer prevalence shows a positive relationship to income, death rates from cancer incorporate several factors: cancer prevalence, detection and treatment. When we compare cancer death rates across income we see no strong relationship between these measures.

There is also no correlation between the level of income inequality in a country and the cancer death rate.Death rate from cancers vs. GDP per capita, 2016

The death rate (measured as the number of deaths per 100,000 individuals) refers to all forms of cancers and is
standardized for age to allow cross-country comparisons.
GDP per capita, PPP (constant 2011 international $)$1,000$10,000$100,000LOGCancers – age-standardized death rate050100150200250ChinaIndiaUnited StatesIndonesiaBrazilPakistanNigeriaBangladeshRussiaJapanMexicoPhilippinesVietnamEthiopiaIranTurkeyDemocratic Republic of CongoFranceTanzaniaMyanmarPolandAlgeriaUgandaMoroccoNepalPeruSaudi ArabiaMozambiqueAustraliaCameroonAngolaChileMaliNetherlandsMalawiZimbabweHungaryBurundiIsraelSwitzerlandParaguaySingaporeCroatiaCongoUruguayArmeniaKuwaitOmanMongoliaQatarGuinea-BissauGabonGrenadaTongaYemenAfricaAsiaEuropeNorth AmericaOceaniaSouth AmericaCC BY

Source: IHME (2017), World Bank – WDI
19902016 Search Average annual change

Definition of metrics

Number of deaths, death rates, and age-standardized rates

In this entry we define cancer deaths in three fundamental ways:

  • Absolute (total) number of cancer deaths;
  • Cancer death rate: this reports the number of deaths per 100,000 individuals within a given population;
  • Age-standardized death rate: this reports the number of deaths per 100,000 individuals assuming a constant and consistent age-structure of population between countries and across time.

These measures vary in the information they provide. Absolute (total) number of cancer deaths & prevalence figures provide an important indication of the total cancer burden within a given country or society. This is an important metric for a number of reasons, including the need for management and provision of adequate health services (which is dependent on the total societal burden, not just the incidence or risk for a given individual).

However, total number of cancer deaths fails to correct for population size and age. Cancer deaths can therefore rise as a result of higher cancer prevalence and/or poorer treatment, but also due to an increase in total population or an aging population. Cancer death rates correct for changes in population size, age-standardized death rates correct for population size and age structure. Age-standardization therefore gives a more indicative measure of the prevalence and incidence of underlying cancer risk factors between countries and with time without the influence of demographic and population structure changes.

Data Sources

Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME), Global Burden of Disease (GBD)
  • Data: Death rates, absolute number of deaths and DALYS across all cancer types
  • Geographical coverage:Global, across all regions and countries
  • Time span:Most metrics available from 1990 onwards
  • Available at: Online here

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)/World Health Organization (WHO)
  • Data: Cancer incidence and mortality of major types of cancer by sex
  • Geographical coverage: Approx. 180 countries
  • Time span: 1950-2002
  • Available at: IARC and WHO’s Globocan 2012 website, and at Gapminder.org
  •  On Gapminder, search for “cancer” in the search box to find the data files.
National Cancer Institute (NCI) Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program
  • Data: Cancer mortality and incidence for over 30 types of cancers by race/ethnicity, sex and age
  • Geographical coverage: United States
  • Time span: 1975-2010
  • Available at: SEER Cancer Statistics Review website

References

  1. See the relevant data here. This is data from Schutte, A. E. (2017). Global, regional, and national age-sex specific mortality for 264 causes of death, 1980-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Available online.
  2. The Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) put relatively small error margins around this global figure: the lower and upper estimates extend from 9.2 to 9.7 million. Full data on cancer deaths, including upper and lower estimates can be downloaded at the IHME’s Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Results Tool.
  3. The latest study can be found at the website of the Lancet here: TheLancet.com/GBD The 2017 study was published as GBD 2017 Risk Factor Collaborators – “Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017” and is online here.
  4. The IHME Global Burden of Disease (GBD) define age-standardization as: “A statistical technique used to compare populations with different age structures, in which the characteristics of the populations are statistically transformed to match those of a reference population.”
  5. Jemal, A. et a. (2017). Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975–2014, Featuring SurvivalJNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Volume 109, Issue 9, 1 September 2017.
  6. Rutter, C.M. et al. (2013). Secular Trends in Colon and Rectal Cancer Relative SurvivalJNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Volume 105, Issue 23, 4 December 2013.
  7. Elkin, E.B. (2005). The effect of changes in tumor size on breast carcinoma survival in the U.S: 1975–1999Cancer. Volume 104, Issue 6.
  8. Allemani, C., Weir, H. K., Carreira, H., Harewood, R., Spika, D., Wang, X. S., … & Marcos-Gragera, R. (2015) – Global surveillance of cancer survival 1995–2009: analysis of individual data for 25 676 887 patients from 279 population-based registries in 67 countries (CONCORD-2). The Lancet, 385(9972), 977-1010. Online here.
  9. Allemani, C., Weir, H. K., Carreira, H., Harewood, R., Spika, D., Wang, X. S., … & Marcos-Gragera, R. (2015) – Global surveillance of cancer survival 1995–2009: analysis of individual data for 25 676 887 patients from 279 population-based registries in 67 countries (CONCORD-2). The Lancet, 385(9972), 977-1010. Online here.
  10. Tomasetti, C., & Vogelstein, B. (2015). Variation in cancer risk among tissues can be explained by the number of stem cell divisions. Science347(6217), 78-81. Available online.
  11. Wild, C., Brennan, P., Plummer, M., Bray, F., Straif, K., & Zavadil, J. (2015). Cancer risk: role of chance overstated. Science347(6223), 728-728. Available online.Song, M., & Giovannucci, E. L. (2015). Cancer risk: many factors contribute. Science347(6223), 728-729. Available online.Ashford, N. A. et al. Cancer risk: role of environment. Science 347, 727 (2015). Available online.
  12. Wu, S., Powers, S., Zhu, W., & Hannun, Y. A. (2016). Substantial contribution of extrinsic risk factors to cancer development. Nature529(7584), 43. Available online.
  13. GBD 2016 Risk Factors Collaborators. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. The Lancet. 14 Sept 2017: 390;1345-1422. Available online.
  14. Note that IHME risk factors do not account for sun exposure, which is a known risk factor for skin cancer. Attribution for skin cancers in the data are therefore an underestimate.

Citation

Our articles and data visualizations rely on work from many different people and organizations. When citing this entry, please also cite the underlying data sources. This entry can be cited as:

Max Roser and Hannah Ritchie (2020) - "Cancer". Published online at OurWorldInData.org. Retrieved from: 'https://ourworldindata.org/cancer' [Online Resource]

BibTeX citation

@article{owidcancer,
    author = {Max Roser and Hannah Ritchie},
    title = {Cancer},
    journal = {Our World in Data},
    year = {2020},
    note = {https://ourworldindata.org/cancer}
}

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Laura Zukerman

Laura Zukerman has a doctorate in Homeopathy and healing medical remedies. She is extremely familiar with neurology, and studies the brain. She is also a professional life coach and certified drug counselor. She was trained as a model for many years, first signing with Wilhelmina in Pennsylvania and then working with Wilhelmina throughout New York & Miami as well as many other modeling agencies. She did a bunch of shows with all the different agencies including Elite Model Management, One model, Bella models, New York Model Management and many others. Laura began walking for many designers & made many connections through networking at the shows she was doing. Laura became friends with many music artists while modeling and attending parties for fashion galas and began to network her way through the industry. Laura Zukerman did a worldwide commercial at the age of 20 for Mikki More with fox news broadcaster Megyn Kelly (Under L’Oreal). Laura Zukerman then met Al Mason, a man who ran this company called News Butterfly Television, and he signed her on to work for NBC, CBS, ABC & News Butterfly to be a TV anchor to host her TV shows on NBC, news channel 4, in NYC taxi cabs on Time Square billboards as well as many other outlets. During Mercedes-Benz Fashion weeks she would work months in advance prepping to call all of these designers so she could schedule interviews for behind the scenes footage at their shows. It was inspiring getting to know the ins and outs of the industry and paved her way into the fashion industry. Laura Zukerman then went on to become a freelance stylist & worked with many different celebrities on their wardrobes. She worked on styling campaigns for E-News, MTV, Conde Nast, The Hearst Corporation and more. Laura also worked in many stores throughout New York City and networked with many amazing people who were in fashion, television, actors, actresses, singers, models, professional athletes; and also met many people who were in the entertainment world in other aspects. As this began to grow, she decided to figure out a way to put this all together and told Al she wanted to start doing her charity events for non-profit fundraisers. Al then introduced Laura to many Ambassadors of the United Nations and Laura began to have a love for philanthropy and helping the environment. Laura then got signed on as a Model to Jorgen Jorgensen who was the CEO of Heartland Model Management. This company was based throughout the US & worldwide. Jorgen was originally from Malmo, Sweden but knew the ins and outs of all of the ways to walk the catwalk. Laura would have classes every Sunday with her agency to show the girls how to walk for all these different designers from around the world. Laura began walking for many designers and did many charity events. One of the biggest events was for DIYA save the children where Laura and her modeling agency had many amazing people from around the world at the event to help out the charity and raise money for kids in India specifically. Another awesome charity event Laura did was The American Heart Association Walk. One of her clients and dear friends Cynthia Flood who runs the Flood Sisters Kidney Foundation of America also has a big show every year with many famous designers and had asked Laura to be part of her show. Laura has also done many editorial shoots as a model herself & has featured in many magazines. Laura has also interviewed on Good Morning America. Laura became excellent friends with Hilary Flowers who did a bunch of fashion shows for fashion week & they became business partners under Al Mason's company to get clients on all of these different media outlets. Hillary Also ran a bunch of fashion shows for many designers that Laura took part. Laura said "It was so much fun meeting new people and networking with all of these great designers whom all had different approaches to their designs. It's amazing how many people are out there trying to get their foot in the door in the fashion industry and how many talented and creative designers there are that aren't noticed enough but should be. I learned this when working at very high-end fashion houses to working with private labels. I grew up owning a store with my mother and sister in our house, so fashion was always a huge love of mine & having my mother and some other family members to look up to as models; I knew that was the right direction for me to go in. I then got interested in singing and am working on a new album with some amazing producers in the industry as well as singers with whom I had become great friends. I was so lucky to have worked with these great producers on my first single "I Can't Help Myself" copyrights under Mitch Moses Productions. These producers not only worked with the likes of David Bowie, Marilyn Manson, Lenny Kravitz & the Beatles but they took a song from the 80s that they had the copyrights to and recreated it just for me. That was something so special and dear to my heart." Kevin Mccray also introduced Laura to many fashion designers, including the likes of Valentino, where he came up with his idea with Laura for Maison Valentino to create humanism & a story yet to be written. Laura inspired the Valentino Love collection. Laura met Kevin through a bunch of friends when she was working with hot 97 at the age of 19. Laura Zukerman was the CEO of a company called Double L Management where she managed up and coming artists, her business partner at the time was the Vice President of Hot 97, and she began learning all about the music industry and got to meet so many musicians doing that. Laura's older sister Jaclyn Zukerman has her magazine in Boston called Get Scene Magazine; Laura does fashion shows for the magazine all of the time! Jaclyn had a radio podcast out in Boston & that's when Laura first debuted the song I Can't Help Myself & sang it live from Boston Massachusetts. Jaclyn Zukerman works with many celebrities and up and coming artists and creatives. Laura's Mother is an author of two amazing books out on Amazon that every female even male should purchase it is called "Lessons for an Urban Goddess" the second book is called "The Urban Goddess Lesson." You can purchase these books through Amazon or on Kindle. They are life changing pieces of material! Laura's father is a Real Estate Developer worldwide and owns the company Whitestone Realty Capital. Laura says "There are so many awesome designers, actresses & singers that I have worked with and continue to work with because you build relationships with these people. They know what your dreams and aspirations are & they were once in your shoes so they understand and they want to help you. If you push yourself you can be anything you want to be, you have to know what you want and go for it." She goes on to say "Never give up on your dreams." Laura's motto for 2017 was "Work hard, Play hard & Slay Hard" Her new motto for the ending of 2018 is “The world is your oyster, go after it.” Laura Zukerman now has her own Instagram blog where she posts pictures of different styles she wears daily to help inspire others to dress to impress. You can find her on Instagram @lzukerman where she tries to keep it updated daily with many inspiring outfits. These are outfits that she wears out with friends & to events. Laura is complimented on her style, so she thought; why not create a blog where she can help not only friends but all young women to look & feel their best & be the best them that they can be. Laura's friends always ask for advice on how to dress & she asks a few simple questions: She starts with 1) where are you going? 2) what is it for? & 3) how do you want to be perceived? Then she tells them exactly what they should wear for the special occasion. Laura always gets great feedback afterward that they got so many compliments on their outfits & that always makes her feel good! Laura as well as her mother sister and family, in general, are all huge on female empowerment. Laura says "We strive to be our best selves & to present to the world the most amazing person you can be. To believe is to achieve & to dream it you have to do it. I have some great advice from one of my best friends who always said, whatever it is you're doing, always give it your best. You never know where that could take you & you always want to present your best self to the world. Not only for you but to show others that you can and are doing what you were made to do." Acting is something that Laura loves doing, and eventually, she would like to start acting more. Laura recently made her second song off her first album coming out summer of 2017 called " Listen to Me" Laura Zukerman is now the Brand Ambassador for Pookie and Sebastian. She will be up on Amazon Worldwide where you can find her wearing all of the fall 2017 merchandise that you can now shop for from anywhere in the world very soon! Pookie and Sebastian stores located in the heart of New York City. Laura Zukerman currently works with Fashion Designers all over the world and loves it so much; she has no begun to travel to meet these designers and do photo shoots, fashion shows, and interviews wherever they may be! More to come soon! Laura studied Fashion Design at FIT & is now taking what she knows and putting everything to good use. Get ready for Laura Zukerman's Fashion Line to Drop. <3 Laura Zukerman is a GLOBAL AMBASSADOR for CREATIONS FOR A CAUSE. With this, Laura can make a difference both globally and locally. Laura is inspiring others to make a difference in the world by volunteering and giving back to the community and the world around her. Laura is working with many fashion & skincare brands internationally to bring you awesome products. Sometimes even FREE GIVEAWAYS. Lauras Marketing Career keeps expanding as her imagination runs wild with new ideas on and off the Television. Movies, Billboards, Advertisements for many companies, Songs for celebrities, she has done it all. Moreover, she's doing more! As she becomes the Marketing Manager of a big Global marketing firm, where she will be the project manager for the North American region! Get excited because the Marketing Business is about to explode. (in the right way of course) Laura Zukerman also has many experiences in Public Relations and Event Management. Her brother Steven Zukerman along with his wife Sharon Zukerman own the event space, Life the Place to Be in Ardsley, New York. Her mother was the head of The March of Dimes for over 15 years. Laura Zukerman has also been the Brand Ambassador for the New York Rangers Love Collection Ambassador for Valentino Givenchy Tiffany & CO Fashion Manufacturer for: YSL, D&G & MacBook AIR Escada Badgley Mischka Tory Burch Rebecca Minkoff Michael Kors Free People Anthropologie Urban Outfitters Steve Madden Zara & more Laura Zukerman was the Fashion Editor in Chief at No.3 Magazine, and now she is working on a second magazine to the be the creative director for the no.3 magazine's second edition that will be all fashion based. www.number3mag.com Laura Zukerman is now working on a big project with some of the most empowering women in the world. Laura can not wait to tell you all about it; it is going to be amazing. If you or anyone you know who might be interested, Laura and her team of 3 other women are looking for tons of new faces to hit the modeling realm. Laura has taken ownership of Heartland Model Management, and this means she could have you walking for any designer in the world in just a few weeks, with some practice, some great photos and from the help of some of the most significant models in the world! We will coach and train you on how to walk the catwalk; we will bring in designers who will pick and choose who they want to be in their shows! We will be coordinating a ton of events for fundraisers on many organizations. We know Instagram is fantastic, but unless you have the right connections and the right people to help you get to where you want to be, you cant achieve it all alone! You need our help to BRAND you! With Laura and her team, you are going to be unstoppable! GET IN THE NOW, AND START WHAT YOU DREAM OF DOING. We bring you styling, professional portfolio shoots, designers worldwide, TV and advertising worldwide, magazine editorials, the fashion awards and much more! Laura Zukerman is the regional sales manager for Street Fashion Week worldwide! http://streetfashionweek.net/ For any designers that are interested in learning more about Street Fashion Week and want to become involved in SFW, contact Laura Zukerman at her email - lzukerman58@gmail.com Laura Zukerman is the Brand Manager and Buyer for Season-Seven and Hilite, we just opened on sept 9th, however we have been around since 2012 as Bou7ique. They are one store combined into two stores. Season-Seven is for women and is on one side and Hilite is for men and is on the other side. Bou7ique is the name of our other two locations which are in Lancaster, PA and Newark, DE. You might have known us well in Miami as well, however, that store was bought out by a hotel. We are looking to expand to more locations within the next year. If you follow our instagram or facebook page, all of the brands we follow are brands we work with and you will be able to see some of the awesome brands we sell. The best part about it is that SS19 is going to be an even bigger array of brands that you won’t want to miss out on! So come shop our stores - Season Seven for women and Hilite for men on 47 Delancey Street NY NY 10002, the lower east side, it is closest to forsyth street and chrystie street, however it is right on Delancey. Just a heads up if you don’t know the area well. Believe me, you will walk out with an amazing new wardrobe! The season seven instagram page is @seasonsevenboutique give us a follow or just check us out! We are open as of now Monday-Friday from 10-7 Eastern Standard time. Laura Zukerman is also a member of ASCAP- the American Society of Composers, Authors and publishers. It is a not for a profit performance rights organization that protects its members musical copyrights. Laura Zukerman is also a partner at WHITESTONE REALTY CAPITAL. You can also follow Laura Zukerman's Instagram account where she updates daily her outfits & outings at www.instagram.com/lzukerman Laura Zukerman also has a new clothing company called AL https://zukerup88.wixsite.com/alcollection Laura Zukerman's work is also updated as she makes her portfolio debut: http://lzukerman58.wixsite.com/laurapaigezukerman Laura Zukerman will begin grad school to be finished at USC, University of Southern California, to major and finish in hospitality management. Laura Zukerman is now signed to UK Models located in London, United Kingdom. Based worldwide globally. Laura Zukerman is also now the NEW Brand Ambassador for ESIO - https://esioelegance.com/ - shop the items, I will be giving out free merchandise and discounts on my Instagram account! follow my Instagram @laurazukerman104 Laura Zukerman also works in collaboration with @johnnywas www.johnnywas.com - shop the items below. Laura Zukerman is now working on a huge event in collaboration with the United Nations, internationally, it will be fashion based. STAY TUNED! Laura Zukerman is a Creative Director, Marketing Strategist, Media Innovator, Fashion Icon, Music Manager, Television Host, Public Relations Coordinator and Events Coordinator. Laura has her PHD in psychology and neurology.

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